Association between financial links to indoor tanning industry and conclusions of published studies on indoor tanning: systematic review.
- 作者列表："Adekunle L","Chen R","Morrison L","Halley M","Eng V","Hendlin Y","Wehner MR","Chren MM","Linos E
OBJECTIVE:To assess whether an association exists between financial links to the indoor tanning industry and conclusions of indoor tanning literature. DESIGN:Systematic review. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, up to 15 February 2019. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA:Articles discussing indoor tanning and health were eligible for inclusion, with no article type restrictions (original research, systematic reviews, review articles, case reports, editorials, commentaries, and letters were all eligible). Basic science studies, articles describing only indoor tanning prevalence, non-English articles, and articles without full text available were excluded. RESULTS:691 articles were included in analysis, including empiric articles (eg, original articles or systematic reviews) (357/691; 51.7%) and non-empiric articles letters (eg, commentaries, letters, or editorials) (334/691; 48.3%). Overall, 7.2% (50/691) of articles had financial links to the indoor tanning industry; 10.7% (74/691) articles favored indoor tanning, 3.9% (27/691) were neutral, and 85.4% (590/691) were critical of indoor tanning. Among the articles without industry funding, 4.4% (27/620) favored indoor tanning, 3.5% (22/620) were neutral, and 92.1% (571/620) were critical of indoor tanning. Among the articles with financial links to the indoor tanning industry, 78% (39/50) favored indoor tanning, 10% (5/50) were neutral, and 12% (6/50) were critical of indoor tanning. Support from the indoor tanning industry was significantly associated with favoring indoor tanning (risk ratio 14.3, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 20.4). CONCLUSIONS:Although most articles in the indoor tanning literature are independent of industry funding, articles with financial links to the indoor tanning industry are more likely to favor indoor tanning. Public health practitioners and researchers need to be aware of and account for industry funding when interpreting the evidence related to indoor tanning. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42019123617.
目的: 评估与室内制革行业的财务联系与室内制革文献的结论之间是否存在关联。 设计: 系统评价。 数据来源: PubMed、Embase和Web of Science，截至 2019 年 2 月 15 日。 研究选择标准: 讨论室内晒黑和健康的文章有资格纳入，没有文章类型限制 (原始研究、系统综述、综述文章、病例报告、社论、评论、和信件都符合条件)。排除基础科学研究、仅描述室内晒黑患病率的文章、非英语文章和无全文的文章。 结果: 纳入分析的文献共 691 篇，包括经验性文章 (如，原创文章或系统综述) (357/691; 51.7%) 和非经验性文章 (如，评论、信件、或社论) (334/691; 48.3%)。总体而言，7.2% (50/691) 的文章与室内制革行业有财务联系; 10.7% (74/691) 的文章倾向于室内制革，3.9% (27/691) 的文章是中性的，85.4% (590/691) 的文章对室内晒黑持批评态度。在没有行业资助的文章中，4.4% (27/620) 喜欢室内晒黑，3.5% (22/620) 是中性的，92.1% (571/620) 是室内晒黑的关键。在与室内制革行业有财务联系的文章中，78% (39/50) 倾向于室内制革，10% (5/50) 为中性，12% (6/50) 对室内制革持批评态度。室内制革行业的支持与有利于室内制革显著相关 (风险比 14.3，95% 置信区间 10.0 至 20.4)。 结论: 尽管室内制革文献中的大多数文章独立于行业资金，但与室内制革行业有财务联系的文章更倾向于室内制革。公共卫生从业人员和研究人员在解释与室内晒黑相关的证据时，需要了解并考虑行业资金。 系统评价注册: PROSPERO crd42019123617。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.