The role of exosomes in metastasis and progression of melanoma.


  • 影响因子:8.69
  • DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.101975
  • 作者列表:"Gowda R","Robertson BM","Iyer S","Barry J","Dinavahi SS","Robertson GP
  • 发表时间:2020-04-01

:The mechanisms of melanoma metastasis have been the subject of extensive research for decades. Improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are of increasing importance for the treatment of melanoma due to its high burden of mortality in the advanced stages of the disease. Intercellular communication is a critical event for the progression of cancer. Collective evidence suggests that exosomes, small extracellular membrane vesicles released by the cells, are important facilitators of intercellular communication between the cells and the surrounding environment. Although the emerging field of exosomes is rapidly gaining traction in the scientific community, there is limited knowledge regarding the role of exosomes in melanoma. This review discusses the multifaceted role of melanoma-derived exosomes in promoting the process of metastasis by modulating the invasive and angiogenic capacity of malignant cells. The future implications of exosome research and the therapeutic potential of exosomes are also discussed.


: 几十年来,黑色素瘤转移的机制一直是广泛研究的主题。由于黑色素瘤晚期的高死亡率负担,改进的诊断和治疗策略对治疗黑色素瘤越来越重要。细胞间通讯是癌症进展的关键事件。集体证据表明,外泌体是细胞释放的小胞外膜囊泡,是细胞与周围环境之间细胞间通讯的重要促进因素。尽管外泌体的新兴领域正在科学界迅速获得关注,但关于外泌体在黑色素瘤中的作用的知识有限。本综述讨论了黑色素瘤来源的外泌体通过调节恶性细胞的侵袭和血管生成能力在促进转移过程中的多方面作用。还讨论了外泌体研究的未来意义和外泌体的治疗潜力。



作者列表:["Zhang B","Li L","Zhang N","Zhao M","Liu Y","Wei L","Ma L","Xu Z"]

METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.

关键词: 暂无
翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
作者列表:["Pham CT","Juhasz M","Sung CT","Mesinkovska NA"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
作者列表:["Lang UE","Love NR","Cheung C","McCalmont TH","Kim J"]

METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.

关键词: 暂无
翻译标题与摘要 下载文献