Identification of a novel DDB2 mutation in a Chinese Han family with Xeroderma pigmentosum group E:a case report and literature review.
鉴定一个中国汉族着色性干皮病家系的新DDB2 突变: 病例报告和文献复习。
- 作者列表："Yang R","Kong Q","Duan Y","Li W","Sang H
BACKGROUND:Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis. There are eight complementation groups of XP (XP-A to G and a variant form). XP-E is one of the least common forms, and XP-E patients are generally not diagnosed until they are adults due to a later onset of skin alterations. CASE PRESENTATION:We report a case of a 28-year-old Chinese woman with freckle-like hyperpigmented macules in a sun-exposed area who is prone to develop basal cell carcinomas. A genetic study revealed a novel homozygous c.111_112del deletion in exon 1 of the DDB2 gene. Western blotting analysis revealed that the patient lacked the expression of the wild-type mature DDB2 protein. The proband was first diagnosed with XPE on the basis of clinical findings and genetic testing. Sun protection was recommended, and the patient did not develop any skin cancers during the one-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:We identified a novel homozygous deletion in DDB2 gene in Chinese XP-E patients having unique clinical features.
背景: 着色性干皮病 (XP) 是一种罕见的常染色体隐性遗传皮肤病。有XP的八个互补组 (XP-A到G和一个变体形式)。XP-E是最不常见的形式之一，XP-E患者通常直到成年才被诊断，因为皮肤改变的发病较晚。 病例报告: 我们报告 1 例 28 岁中国女性，日晒区雀斑样色素沉着斑疹，易发生基底细胞癌。一项遗传学研究发现DDB2 基因外显子 1 有一个新的纯合c.111 _ 112del缺失。Western blotting分析发现患者缺乏野生型成熟DDB2 蛋白的表达。先证者在临床发现和基因检测的基础上首次诊断为XPE。建议防晒，患者在 1 年随访期间未发生任何皮肤癌。 结论: 我们在具有独特临床特征的中国XP-E患者中发现了DDB2 基因的一种新的纯合缺失。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.