Compound blue nevus: a reappraisal of the concept in the genomic era.
- 作者列表："Jaquemus J","Perron E","Buisson A","Ferrara G","Haddad V","de la Fouchardiere A
:We report a series of 21 compound blue nevi, a rare variant in the vast clinical and morphological spectrum of blue melanocytic proliferations. Clinically, they presented in young adults, with a slight female predominance. One-third were located on the dorsum of the foot. Morphologically, all cases displayed large dendritic melanocytes restricted to the deep layers of the epidermis. The compound component was central and evenly distributed. Melanocytic density ranged from scarce isolated cells to a confluent lentiginous architecture. In 12 of the 21 cases, junctional nests of small, bland, weakly pigmented melanocytes were associated. These nests became confluent in the most cellular cases. In all cases, a dermal component was immediately present underneath, mainly of cellular blue nevus-type. All cases were genetically confirmed to harbor either a GNAQ or GNA11 hotspot mutation. This study expands the morphological spectrum of blue nevi that should not be restricted to a strictly intradermal melanocytic proliferation.
: 我们报道了一系列 21 种化合物蓝痣，这是蓝色黑素细胞增殖的大量临床和形态学谱中的一种罕见变体。临床上，它们表现为青壮年，以女性为主。三分之一位于足背.形态学上，所有病例均显示局限于表皮深层的大型树突状黑素细胞。复合成分呈中央分布均匀。黑素细胞密度从稀缺的分离细胞到融合的慢形结构。21 例中有 12 例合并有小的、淡而无味的、弱色素性黑素细胞的交界巢。这些巢在大多数细胞情况下变得融合。在所有病例中，真皮成分立即出现在下方，主要是细胞蓝痣型。所有病例均经基因证实携带GNAQ或GNA11 热点突变。本研究扩大了蓝痣的形态光谱，不应局限于严格的皮内黑素细胞增殖。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.