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Eruptive Melanocytic Nevi Secondary to Encorafenib for BRAF Mutant Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.


  • 影响因子:1.50
  • DOI:10.21873/invivo.11793
  • 作者列表:"Meneguzzo A","Lazzarotto A","Alaibac M
  • 发表时间:2020-01-01

:A 59-year-old woman, undergoing treatment with encorafenib for metastatic BRAF mutated colorectal cancer, developed during the first two months of therapy multiple eruptive nevi and changes in pre-existing nevi. Development of eruptive nevi has increasingly been reported in association with medications, most frequently conventional immunosuppressants and biologics. Some drugs are associated with eruptive nevi through an indirect effect of their mechanism of action, whereas other drugs are directly implicated in melanocyte proliferation. In this regard, BRAF inhibitors have been demonstrated to activate the MAPK pathway, and to promote cellular proliferation and survival, therefore leading to the development of new melanocytic nevi and to an increase in the size and hyperpigmentation of pre-existing nevi. A dermatological assessment and follow-up should be recommended in all patients presenting with eruptive nevi, regardless of the pathogenesis, because a high number of acquired melanocytic nevi may represent an adjunctive risk factor for melanoma.


: 1 例 59 岁女性,接受encorafenib治疗转移性BRAF突变的结直肠癌,在治疗的前两个月出现多发性发疹性痣和已有痣的变化。发疹性痣的发生越来越多的报道与药物有关,最常见的是常规免疫抑制剂和生物制剂。一些药物通过其作用机制的间接作用与发疹性痣有关,而其他药物直接参与黑素细胞增殖。在这方面,BRAF抑制剂已被证明可激活MAPK通路,并促进细胞增殖和存活,因此导致新的黑素细胞痣的发展和预先存在的痣的大小和色素沉着增加。无论发病机制如何,都应推荐对所有出疹性痣患者进行皮肤病学评估和随访,因为大量获得性黑素细胞痣可能是黑色素瘤的辅助危险因素。



作者列表:["Zhang B","Li L","Zhang N","Zhao M","Liu Y","Wei L","Ma L","Xu Z"]

METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.

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作者列表:["Pham CT","Juhasz M","Sung CT","Mesinkovska NA"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.

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作者列表:["Lang UE","Love NR","Cheung C","McCalmont TH","Kim J"]

METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.

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