Multiparametric analysis of the effectiveness of cisplatin on cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells using two different types of adjuvants.
- 作者列表："Gil S","Solano E","Martínez-Trucharte F","Martínez-Esaín J","Pérez-Berná AJ","Conesa JJ","Kamma-Lorger C","Alsina M","Sabés M
:The objective of this study was to regulate the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (cisPt) minimizing its adverse effects. For this purpose, the lowest cisPt concentration needed to obtain a significant positive response in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) was explored. Two adjuvant agents as gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and chelating tricine were tested as enhancers in cisPt treatment. Effectiveness of all treatments was assessed by means of biochemical techniques, which offer quantitative data, as well as two microscopy-based techniques that provided qualitative cell imaging. The present work confirms the effectiveness of free cisplatin at very low concentrations. In order to enhance its effectiveness while the side effects were probably diminished, cisPt 3.5 μM was administered with AuNP 2.5 mM, showing an effectiveness practically equal to that observed with free cisPt. However, the second treatment investigated, based on cisPt 3.5 μM combined with tricine 50 mM, enhanced drug effectiveness, increasing the percentage of cells dying by apoptosis. This treatment was even better in terms of cell damage than free cisPt at 15 μM. Images obtained by TEM and cryo-SXT confirmed these results, since a notable number of apoptotic bodies were detected when cisPt was combined with tricine. Thus, tricine was clearly a better adjuvant for cisPt treatments.
: 本研究的目的是调节顺铂 (cist) 的细胞毒性，最大限度地减少其不良反应。为此，探索了皮肤鳞状细胞癌 (cSCC) 获得显著阳性反应所需的最低cist浓度。金纳米颗粒 (AuNP) 和螯合tricine两种佐剂在cist治疗中作为增强子进行了测试。通过提供定量数据的生化技术以及提供定性细胞成像的两种基于显微镜的技术评估所有治疗的有效性。目前的工作证实了游离顺铂在非常低浓度下的有效性。为了增强其有效性，同时副作用可能减少，cist 3.5 μ m给予AuNP 2.5 mM，显示出与游离cist观察到的有效性几乎相等。然而，第二种治疗研究，基于cist 3.5 μ m联合tricine 50 mM，增强了药物有效性，增加了细胞凋亡死亡的百分比。在 15 μ m时，这种处理在细胞损伤方面甚至优于游离cist。通过TEM和cryo-SXT获得的图像证实了这些结果，因为当cist与tricine联合时，检测到显著数量的凋亡小体。因此，tricine显然是cist治疗的更好佐剂。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.