SARS-Cov-2 infection: Response of human immune system and possible implications for the rapid test and treatment.
SARS-Cov-2 感染: 人体免疫系统的反应以及快速检测和治疗的可能影响。
- 作者列表："di Mauro Gabriella","Cristina S","Concetta R","Francesco R","Annalisa C
:The new coronavirus outbreak is an ongoing pandemic that is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The new coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 belongs to the subfamily of β-coronaviruses and shares 79.5% of the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV, the causative agent of the epidemic that started in 2002 and ended in 2004. Considering the clinical impact of the new outbreak, it is highly important to study the potential responses of the human immune system during the SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the role of virus-specific T cells and by B-lymphocytes. Moreover, specific data on the production of IgG and IgM is crucial to allow the rapid identification of the infection. In this paper we also described the importance of sensitive and specific rapid test for SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, this test represents an important immunological tool aimed at identifying the precise phase of the infection in order to undertake a more appropriate pharmacological treatment. Lastly, we provided an overview of pharmacological treatments aimed to reduce inflammatory processes underlying the infection and the need for the discovery of a new vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.
: 新的冠状病毒爆发是由新型冠状病毒冠状病毒 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 引起的持续大流行。新的冠状病毒传染性非典型肺炎-Cov-2 属于亚家族 β-冠状病毒es分享 79.5% 的遗传序列的传染性非典型肺炎-CoV，从 2002 年开始，2004 年结束的流行病的病原体。考虑到t他临床impac t的t他新ou t打破，i t是高度impor t t一个t t o s t udy t他po t在t期间人类免疫系统t em的t.he SARS-CoV-2 infec t离子以及t.病毒特异性T细胞和B淋巴细胞t es的作用。此外，IgG和IgM产生的具体数据对于快速识别感染至关重要。文章摘要: 文章介绍了重要的敏感和特异的快速test的SARS-CoV-2.事实上，该test代表了一个重要的免疫学工具，旨在确定感染的精确阶段，以便进行更适当的药物治疗。最后，我们概述了旨在减少感染潜在炎症过程的药物治疗，以及发现新的SARS-CoV-2 疫苗的必要性。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.