The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease and their neuroinvasive propensity may affect in COVID-19 patients.
新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 疾病的出现及其神经侵袭倾向可能影响新型冠状病毒肺炎患者。
- 作者列表："Yashavantha Rao HC","Jayabaskaran C
:An outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has recently emerged and rapidly spreading in humans causing a significant threat to international health and the economy. Rapid assessment and warning are crucial for an outbreak analysis in response to serious public health. SARS-CoV-2 shares highly homological sequences with SARS-CoVs causing highly lethal pneumonia with respiratory distress and clinical symptoms similar to those reported for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections. Notably, some COVID-19 patients also expressed neurologic signs like nausea, headache, and vomiting. Several studies have reported that coronaviruses are not only causing respiratory illness but also invade the central nervous system through a synapse-connected route. SARS-CoV infections are reported in both patients and experimental animals' brains. Interestingly, some COVID-19 patients have shown the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in their cerebrospinal fluid. Considering the similarities between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in various aspects, it remains to clarify whether the potent invasion of SARS-CoV-2 may affect in COVID-19 patients. All these indicate that more detailed criteria are needed for the treatment and the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. In the absence of potential interventions for COVID-19, there is an urgent need for an alternative strategy to control the spread of this disease.
: 最近出现了新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 感染的爆发，并在人类中迅速蔓延，对国际卫生和经济造成重大威胁。快速评估和预警对于应对严重公共卫生的疫情分析至关重要。传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2 股份高度同源序列传染性非典型肺炎-CoVs造成高致命性肺炎呼吸窘迫临床症状类似报道传染性非典型肺炎CoV冠状病毒 (MERS-CoV感染.值得注意的是，一些新型冠状病毒肺炎患者还会出现恶心、头痛和呕吐等神经系统症状。几项研究报道，冠状病毒不仅引起呼吸系统疾病，还通过突触连接的途径侵入中枢神经系统。传染性非典型肺炎-CoV感染在患者和实验动物的大脑中都有报道。有趣的是，一些新型冠状病毒肺炎患者的脑脊液中显示SARS-CoV-2 病毒。考虑到之间的相似之处传染性非典型肺炎冠状病毒和传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2 在各个方面，还有待澄清是否有效入侵传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2 可能会影响在新型冠状病毒肺炎.所有这些都表明需要更详细的标准来治疗和预防感染患者SARS-CoV-2。在新型冠状病毒肺炎缺乏潜在干预措施的情况下，迫切需要一种替代策略来控制这种疾病的传播。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.