Recent progress and challenges in drug development against COVID-19 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) - an update on the status.
抗新型冠状病毒肺炎冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 药物开发的最新进展和挑战。
- 作者列表："Abd El-Aziz TM","Stockand JD
:Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses known to cause illnesses that vary between the common cold and more severe diseases to include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). A novel coronavirus was identified in December 2019 in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. This virus represents a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic in March 2020. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with more than 1,948,617 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 121,846 deaths worldwide. Currently, no specific medication is recommended to treat COVID-19 patients. However, governments and pharmaceutical companies are struggling to quickly find an effective drug to defeat the coronavirus. In the current review, we summarize the existing state of knowledge about COVID-19, available medications, and treatment options. Favilavir is an antiviral drug that is approved in Japan for common influenza treatment and is now approved to treat symptoms of COVID-19 in China. Moreover, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, drugs used to treat malaria and arthritis, respectively, were recommended by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19. Presently, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are under investigation by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for COVID-19. The first COVID-19 vaccine is not expected to be ready for clinical trials before the end of the year.
: 冠状病毒是一大群人的病毒已知会导致疾病之间变化的普通感冒和更严重的疾病，包括严重急性呼吸道症候群 (传染性非典型肺炎) 中东呼吸综合征.中国湖北省武汉市于 2019 年 12 月鉴定出一新型冠状病毒。这种病毒代表了一种以前没有在人类中发现的新毒株。这种病毒现在被称为新型冠状病毒病毒 2 (SARS-CoV-2)，由此产生的疾病被称为corona病毒病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)。世卫组织于 2020 年 3 月宣布新型冠状病毒疫情为全球大流行。尽管全球采取了严格的遏制和检疫措施，新型冠状病毒肺炎的发病率仍在持续上升，全球有超过 1,948,617 实验室确诊病例，超过 121,846 人死亡。目前，没有特定的药物被推荐用于治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎患者。然而，政府和制药公司正在努力快速找到一种有效的药物来击败冠状病毒。在本综述中，我们总结了关于新型冠状病毒肺炎、可用药物和治疗方案的现有知识状况。Favilavir是一种抗病毒药物，在日本被批准用于普通流感治疗，现在在中国被批准用于治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎症状。此外，氯喹和羟氯喹，分别用于治疗疟疾和关节炎的药物，被中华人民共和国国家卫生委员会推荐用于治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎。目前，氯喹和羟氯喹正在接受美国食品和药物管理局 (FDA) 的调查，以治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎。首个新型冠状病毒肺炎疫苗预计不会在年底前准备好进行临床试验。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.