New understanding of the damage of SARS-CoV-2 infection outside the respiratory system.
- 作者列表："Zhang Y","Geng X","Tan Y","Li Q","Xu C","Xu J","Hao L","Zeng Z","Luo X","Liu F","Wang H
:Since early December 2019, a number of pneumonia cases associated with unknown coronavirus infection were identified in Wuhan, China, and many additional cases were identified in other regions of China and in other countries within 3 months. Currently, more than 80,000 cases have been diagnosed in China, including more than 3000 deaths. The epidemic is spreading to the rest of the world, posing a grave challenge to prevention and control. On February 12, 2020, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses and the World Health Organization officially named the novel coronavirus and associated pneumonia as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respectively. According to the recent research on SARS-CoV-2, the virus mainly infects the respiratory system but may cause damage to other systems. In this paper, we will systematically review the pathogenic features, transmission routes, and infection mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, as well as any adverse effects on the digestive system, urogenital system, central nervous system, and circulatory system, in order to provide a theoretical and clinical basis for the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and prognosis assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
: 自 2019 年 12 月初以来，在中国武汉发现了一些与未知冠状病毒感染相关的肺炎病例，中国其他地区和其他国家在 3 个月内发现了许多额外的病例。目前，中国已确诊病例超过 80,000 例，其中死亡病例超过 3000 例。这一流行病正在蔓延到世界其他地方，对预防和控制构成严重挑战。2 月 1 2 日 2 0，国际病毒分类委员会和世界卫生组织正式将新型冠状病毒和相关性肺炎命名为严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒冠状病毒 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 和冠状病毒疾病 2 019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)，分别。根据最近对SARS-CoV-2 的研究，该病毒主要感染呼吸系统，但可能对其他系统造成损害。本文就SARS-CoV-2 的致病特点、传播途径、感染机制以及对消化系统、泌尿生殖系统、中枢神经系统、和循环系统，为其诊断、分型、治疗提供理论和临床依据，及预后评估SARS-CoV-2 感染。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.