2020 年 2 月至 4 月在美国教养所和拘留所新型冠状病毒肺炎。
- 作者列表："Wallace M","Hagan L","Curran KG","Williams SP","Handanagic S","Bjork A","Davidson SL","Lawrence RT","McLaughlin J","Butterfield M","James AE","Patil N","Lucas K","Hutchinson J","Sosa L","Jara A","Griffin P","Simonson S","Brown CM","Smoyer S","Weinberg M","Pattee B","Howell M","Donahue M","Hesham S","Shelley E","Philips G","Selvage D","Staley EM","Lee A","Mannell M","McCotter O","Villalobos R","Bell L","Diedhiou A","Ortbahn D","Clayton JL","Sanders K","Cranford H","Barbeau B","McCombs KG","Holsinger C","Kwit NA","Pringle JC","Kariko S","Strick L","Allord M","Tillman C","Morrison A","Rowe D","Marlow M
:An estimated 2.1 million U.S. adults are housed within approximately 5,000 correctional and detention facilities† on any given day (1). Many facilities face significant challenges in controlling the spread of highly infectious pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Such challenges include crowded dormitories, shared lavatories, limited medical and isolation resources, daily entry and exit of staff members and visitors, continual introduction of newly incarcerated or detained persons, and transport of incarcerated or detained persons in multiperson vehicles for court-related, medical, or security reasons (2,3). During April 22-28, 2020, aggregate data on COVID-19 cases were reported to CDC by 37 of 54 state and territorial health department jurisdictions. Thirty-two (86%) jurisdictions reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case from a total of 420 correctional and detention facilities. Among these facilities, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 4,893 incarcerated or detained persons and 2,778 facility staff members, resulting in 88 deaths in incarcerated or detained persons and 15 deaths among staff members. Prompt identification of COVID-19 cases and consistent application of prevention measures, such as symptom screening and quarantine, are critical to protecting incarcerated and detained persons and staff members.
: 估计有 210万名美国成年人在任何一天居住在大约 5,000 个惩教和拘留设施 † (1)。许多设施也面临着严峻的挑战。在控制传播传染性很强的病原体如SARS-CoV-2，病毒导致冠状病毒病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎).这些挑战包括宿舍拥挤、共用厕所、医疗和隔离资源有限、工作人员和访客每天进出、不断介绍新被监禁或拘留的人、以及出于法院相关、医疗或安全原因在多人车辆中运输被监禁或被拘留者 (2,3)。在 2020 年 4 月 22-28 日期间，54 个州和地区卫生部门的 37 个司法管辖区向CDC报告了新型冠状病毒肺炎病例的汇总数据。32 个 (86% 个) 司法管辖区报告了来自总共 420 个惩教和拘留设施的至少一个实验室确认病例。在这些设施中，4,893 名被监禁或被拘留者和 2,778 名设施工作人员被诊断为新型冠状病毒肺炎，导致 88 名被监禁或被拘留者和 15 名工作人员死亡。迅速查明新型冠状病毒肺炎病例，并采取一致的预防措施，如症状筛查和检疫，对保护被监禁和被拘留的人员和工作人员至关重要。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.