Difficulty of downscaling the precautions for coronavirus disease-19 based on negative throat polymerase chain results in the early phase of infection.
- 作者列表："Suzuki T","Kutsuna S","Nakamura K","Ide S","Moriyama Y","Saito S","Morioka S","Ishikane M","Kinoshita N","Hayakawa K","Ohmagari N
:We here report a case of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Japan in which the initial throat swab polymerase chain reaction result was negative The possibility of false-negative results in the early phase of disease suggest reconsideration of the feasibility of a community or national infection control framework to prevent transmission. We recommend establishing an alternative feasible system, such as self-isolation by contact history in non-endemic community and by symptoms in endemic community, not relying on the PCR examination, to minimize this ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. Further rapid accumulation of knowledge including incubation period, clinical course and types of transmission is warranted to control this outbreak.
: 我们在这里报告一例冠状病毒病-19 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 在最初咽拭子聚合酶链反应结果为阴性的日本，疾病早期假阴性结果的可能性表明重新考虑社区或国家感染控制框架的可行性防止传播。我们建议建立一个替代可行的系统，如在非流行社区通过接触史和在流行社区根据症状进行自我隔离，不依赖PCR检查，以尽量减少这种正在进行的新型冠状病毒肺炎爆发。需要进一步快速积累知识，包括潜伏期、临床病程和传播类型，以控制本次疫情。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.