SARS-CoV-2 编年史: 第一部分流行病学、诊断、预后、传播和治疗。
- 作者列表："Kumar M","Taki K","Gahlot R","Sharma A","Dhangar K
:In order to benefit the public, community workers and scientific community, we hereby present a chronicle of SARS-CoV-2 that leads to the unseen precedent of social distancing and lockdown owing to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Information on this life-threatening pandemic of COVID-19 is sparse and discrete; and the urgency is such that the dissemination of information is increasing with numerous daily publications on the topic. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive review on various aspects of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. We scientifically compiled published research, news, and reports from various sources to comprehend and summarize the information and findings on Coronaviruses. The review explicitly covers the aspects like genome and pedigree of SARS-CoV-2; epidemiology, prognosis, pathogenesis, symptoms and diagnosis of COVID-19 in order to catalog the right information on transmission route, and influence of environmental factors on virus transmissions, for the robust understanding of right strategical steps for proper COVID-19 management. We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion. We have also suggested future research perspectives, challenges and scope.
: 为了造福公众、社区工作者和科学界，我们特此发布一份SARS-CoV-2 纪事，该纪事导致了冠状病毒病 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 导致社会疏远和封锁的未知先例。关于这一危及生命的新型冠状病毒肺炎流行病的信息稀少且离散; 当务之急是，随着关于这一主题的大量日常出版物的增加，信息的传播也在增加。因此，我们制定了一个全面的审查各个方面的SARS-CoV-2 和新型冠状病毒肺炎。我们科学地汇编了各种来源的已发表的研究、新闻和报告，以了解和总结关于冠状病毒的信息和发现。审查明确涵盖的方面，如基因组和谱系的SARS-CoV-2; 流行病学，预后，发病机制，症状和诊断新型冠状病毒肺炎为了目录正确的信息传播途径，以及环境因素对病毒传播的影响，以正确理解正确的战略步骤，进行适当的新型冠状病毒肺炎管理。我们明确强调了几个有用的信息和事实，如: i) 没有确定的SARS-CoV-2 进展与温度，湿度和/或两者之间的关系，ii) SARS-CoV-2 的潜在机制尚不完全清楚，iii) 呼吸液滴大小决定液滴和基于空气的传播，iv)新型冠状病毒肺炎的预后可通过其对机体各器官的影响来完成，v) 通过限制S蛋白与AE2 的结合来阻止感染，vi) 羟氯喹被认为对新型冠状病毒肺炎优于氯喹，vii) 具有Vero-hSLAM细胞的伊维菌素能够减少感染 ~5000 的时间在 2 天之内，并且viii) 甲磺酸萘马司他能抑制SARS-CoV-2 S蛋白启动的膜融合。我们还提出了未来的研究视角、挑战和范围。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.