- 作者列表："Khalaj-Hedayati A","Chua CLL","Smooker P","Lee KW
:The threat of novel influenza infections has sparked research efforts to develop subunit vaccines that can induce a more broadly protective immunity by targeting selected regions of the virus. In general, subunit vaccines are safer but may be less immunogenic than whole cell inactivated or live attenuated vaccines. Hence, novel adjuvants that boost immunogenicity are increasingly needed as we move toward the era of modern vaccines. In addition, targeting, delivery, and display of the selected antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells are also important in vaccine design and development. The use of nanosized particles can be one of the strategies to enhance immunogenicity as they can be efficiently recognized by antigen-presenting cells. They can act as both immunopotentiators and delivery system for the selected antigens. This review will discuss on the applications, advantages, limitations, and types of nanoparticles (NPs) used in the preparation of influenza subunit vaccine candidates to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses.
: 新型流感感染的威胁引发了研究努力，开发亚单位疫苗，通过针对病毒的选定区域诱导更广泛的保护性免疫。一般来说，亚单位疫苗比全细胞灭活或减毒活疫苗更安全，但免疫原性可能较低。因此，随着我们走向现代疫苗时代，越来越需要提高免疫原性的新型佐剂。此外，靶向、递送和展示专业抗原呈递细胞表面的选定抗原在疫苗设计和开发中也很重要。纳米颗粒的使用可以是增强免疫原性的策略之一，因为它们可以被抗原呈递细胞有效识别。它们既可以作为免疫增强剂，也可以作为所选抗原的递送系统。本综述将讨论用于制备流感亚单位疫苗候选物以增强体液和细胞免疫应答的纳米颗粒 (NPs) 的应用、优点、局限性和类型。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.