- 作者列表："Xu ZW","Li ZJ","Hu WB
BACKGROUND:Understanding the global spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza is essential for influenza control and prevention. Available data on the updated global spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza are scarce. This study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza after the 2009 influenza pandemic. METHODS:Weekly influenza surveillance data in 86 countries from 2010 to 2017 were obtained from FluNet. First, the proportion of influenza A in total influenza viruses (PA) was calculated. Second, weekly numbers of influenza positive virus (A and B) were divided by the total number of samples processed to get weekly positive rates of influenza A (RWA) and influenza B (RWB). Third, the average positive rates of influenza A (RA) and influenza B (RB) for each country were calculated by averaging RWA, and RWB of 52 weeks. A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to examine if the year-to-year change in PA in all countries were significant, and a universal kriging method with linear semivariogram model was used to extrapolate RA and RB in all countries. RESULTS:PA ranged from 0.43 in Zambia to 0.98 in Belarus, and PA in countries with higher income was greater than those countries with lower income. The spatial patterns of high RB were the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific region and South America. RWA peaked in early weeks in temperate countries, and the peak of RWB occurred a bit later. There were some temperate countries with non-distinct influenza seasonality (e.g., Mauritius and Maldives) and some tropical/subtropical countries with distinct influenza seasonality (e.g., Chile and South Africa). CONCLUSIONS:Influenza seasonality is not predictable in some temperate countries, and it is distinct in Chile, Argentina and South Africa, implying that the optimal timing for influenza vaccination needs to be chosen with caution in these unpredictable countries.
背景: 了解季节性流感的全球时空格局对流感的控制和预防至关重要。关于季节性流感全球时空格局更新的现有数据很少。本研究旨在评估 2009 流感大流行后季节性流感的时空模式。 方法: 从fluenet获得了 2010 年至 2017 年 86 个国家的每周流感监测数据。首先，计算甲型流感在流感病毒总量 (PA) 中的比例。第二，每周流感阳性病毒 (A和B) 的数量除以处理的样本总数，以获得甲型流感 (RWA) 和乙型流感 (RWB) 的每周阳性率。第三，通过平均RWA和 52 周RWB计算每个国家的平均甲型流感 (RA) 和乙型流感 (RB) 阳性率。进行Kruskal-Wallis test，以检验所有国家PA的逐年变化是否显著，并采用线性半变异函数模型的通用kriging方法外推各国RA和RB。 结果: PA在赞比亚为 0.43，白俄罗斯为 0.98，收入较高的国家PA大于收入较低的国家。高RB的空间模式在撒哈拉以南非洲、亚太地区和南美洲最高。RWA在温带国家的早期几周内达到峰值，RWB的峰值发生较晚一点。有一些温带国家具有非明显的流感季节性 (e。g.，毛里求斯和马尔代夫) 和一些具有明显流感季节性的热带/亚热带国家 (e.g.，智利和南非)。 结论: 流感季节性在一些温带国家是不可预测的，在智利、阿根廷和南非是不同的，这意味着在这些不可预测的国家需要谨慎选择流感疫苗接种的最佳时机。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.