Interim Estimates of 2019-20 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, February 2020.
2019-20 季节性流感疫苗有效性的中期估计-美国，2020 年 2 月。
- 作者列表："Dawood FS","Chung JR","Kim SS","Zimmerman RK","Nowalk MP","Jackson ML","Jackson LA","Monto AS","Martin ET","Belongia EA","McLean HQ","Gaglani M","Dunnigan K","Foust A","Sessions W","DaSilva J","Le S","Stark T","Kondor RJ","Barnes JR","Wentworth DE","Brammer L","Fry AM","Patel MM","Flannery B
:During the 2019-20 influenza season, influenza-like illness (ILI)* activity first exceeded the national baseline during the week ending November 9, 2019, signaling the earliest start to the influenza season since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Activity remains elevated as of mid-February 2020. In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season, CDC estimates seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This interim report used data from 4,112 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during October 23, 2019-January 25, 2020. Overall, vaccine effectiveness (VE) against any influenza virus associated with medically attended ARI was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36%-53%). VE was estimated to be 50% (95% CI = 39%-59%) against influenza B/Victoria viruses and 37% (95% CI = 19%-52%) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, indicating that vaccine has significantly reduced medical visits associated with influenza so far this season. Notably, vaccination provided substantial protection (VE = 55%; 95% CI = 42%-65%) among children and adolescents aged 6 months-17 years. Interim VE estimates are consistent with those from previous seasons, ranging from 40%-60% when influenza vaccines were antigenically matched to circulating viruses. CDC recommends that health care providers continue to administer influenza vaccine to persons aged ≥6 months because influenza activity is ongoing, and the vaccine can still prevent illness, hospitalization, and death associated with currently circulating influenza viruses as well as other influenza viruses that might circulate later in the season.
: 在 2019-20 流感季节期间，流感样疾病 (ILI)* 活动在截至 2019 年 11 月 9 日的一周内首次超过国家基线，标志着自 2009 甲型H1N1 流感大流行以来流感季节的最早开始。截至 2020 年 2 月中旬，活动仍在上升。在美国，建议所有年龄 ≥ 6 个月的人每年接种季节性流感疫苗 (1)。在每个流感季节，CDC估计季节性流感疫苗在预防与医疗急性呼吸系统疾病 (ARI) 相关的实验室确诊流感方面的有效性。本中期报告使用了 2019 年 10 月 23 日至 20 年 1 月 25 日期间入组美国流感疫苗有效性网络 (美国流感VE网络) 的 4,112 名儿童和成人的数据。总体而言，针对任何与医疗护理ARI相关的流感病毒的疫苗有效性 (VE) 为 45% (95% 置信区间 [CI] = 36%-53%)。VE被估计为 50% (95% CI = 39%-59%) 针对b型/维多利亚流感病毒和 37% (95% CI = 19%-52%) 针对甲型流感 (H1N1)pdm09，表明疫苗已经显著减少与流感相关的医疗访问到目前为止这个季节。值得注意的是，疫苗接种在 6 个月-17 岁的儿童和青少年中提供了实质性的保护 (VE = 55%; 95% CI = 42%-65%)。中期VE估计值与前几个季节的估计值一致，当流感疫苗与循环病毒抗原性匹配时，范围为 40%-60%。CDC建议卫生保健提供者继续为年龄 ≥ 6 个月的人接种流感疫苗，因为流感活动正在进行，疫苗仍然可以预防疾病、住院、与目前流行的流感病毒以及其他可能在季节晚些时候流行的流感病毒相关的死亡。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.