Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review.
冠状病毒病 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 早期暴发流行病学、病因、临床表现和诊断、预防和控制: 范围回顾。
- 作者列表："Adhikari SP","Meng S","Wu YJ","Mao YP","Ye RX","Wang QZ","Sun C","Sylvia S","Rozelle S","Raat H","Zhou H
BACKGROUND:The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. METHODS:A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O'Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors' affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. RESULTS:Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus' origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. CONCLUSIONS:There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term.
背景: 2019 年 12 月，湖北省武汉市发生一起呼吸系统疾病暴发流行，由冠状病毒病 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 引起。截至 2020 年 1 月 31 日，疫情已蔓延到 19 个国家，确诊病例 11 791 人，其中 213 人死亡。世界卫生组织已宣布它为国际关注的突发公共卫生事件。 方法: 按照Arksey和o 'malley建议的方法学框架进行范围审查。在本次范围审查中，对 2020 年 1 月 31 日之前发表的 65 篇研究文章进行了分析和讨论，以更好地了解该病毒流行病学病因、临床诊断和预防控制。研究领域、发表日期、期刊语言、作者隶属关系和方法学特征被纳入分析。本综述中关于疫情的所有发现和陈述均基于参考文献中列出的已发表信息。 结果: 大多数出版物使用英语写作 (89.2%)。发表的文章中与病因相关的比例最大 (38.5%)，大多数 (67.7%) 是由中国学者发表的。研究文章最初侧重于原因，但随着时间的推移，与预防和控制相关的文章有所增加。迄今为止的研究表明，该病毒的起源与武汉的海鲜市场有关，但具体的动物协会尚未得到证实。报告的症状包括发热、咳嗽、乏力、肺炎、头痛、腹泻、咯血和呼吸困难。预防措施，如口罩，手卫生的做法，避免公众接触，病例检测，接触者追踪，和检疫已被讨论的方法，以减少传播。迄今为止，没有特定的抗病毒治疗被证明是有效的; 因此，感染者主要依靠对症治疗和支持治疗。 结论: 针对新型冠状病毒肺炎爆发的研究迅速增加。早期已发表的研究主要探讨了新型冠状病毒流行病学、病因、临床表现、诊断及预防控制。虽然这些研究与控制当前的公共突发事件有关，需要更多高质量的研究来提供有效和可靠的方法来管理这种短期和长期的公共卫生突发事件。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.