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Mask crisis during the COVID-19 outbreak.

掩盖新型冠状病毒肺炎爆发期间的危机。

  • 影响因子:2.21
  • DOI:10.26355/eurrev_202003_20707
  • 作者列表:"Wang MW","Zhou MY","Ji GH","Ye L","Cheng YR","Feng ZH","Chen J
  • 发表时间:2020-03-01
Abstract

:On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. As of February 29, 2020, the National Health Commission of China has reported 79,389 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 34 provinces. The masks can be used to block respiratory transmission from human to human, and are an effective way to control influenza. It is, therefore, necessary to wear a mask when respiratory infectious diseases are prevalent. China has a population of 1.4 billion. Assuming that two-thirds of the people in China must wear a mask every day, the daily demand for masks will reach 900 million. The Chinese government has taken many measures to solve these problems. Additionally, more measures should be taken to properly dispose of mask garbage. Although the outbreak originated in China, person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed, which means that it can be spread to anywhere in the world if prevention measures fail. The issues regarding face mask shortages and garbage in China, therefore, deserve worldwide attention.

摘要

: 2019 年 12 月 31 日,世卫组织报告了在中国湖北省武汉市发现的不明原因肺炎病例。截至 2020 年 2 月 29 日,中国国家卫生计生委已报告 34 个省份确诊病例感染 79,389 SARS-CoV-2。口罩可阻断人与人的呼吸传播,是控制流感的有效途径。因此,当呼吸道传染病流行时,有必要戴上口罩。中国有 14亿人口。假设中国有 3分之2 的人每天必须戴口罩,那么每天口罩的需求量将达到 9亿。中国政府采取了许多措施来解决这些问题。此外,应采取更多措施妥善处理口罩垃圾。虽然疫情起源于中国,但SARS-CoV-2 的人际传播已经得到证实,这意味着如果预防措施失败,它可以传播到世界任何地方。因此,中国的口罩短缺和垃圾问题值得全世界关注。

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影响因子:1.60
发表时间:2020-02-17
DOI:10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79
作者列表:["Lim J","Jeon S","Shin HY","Kim MJ","Seong YM","Lee WJ","Choe KW","Kang YM","Lee B","Park SJ"]

METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.

影响因子:4.36
发表时间:2020-02-17
DOI:10.1080/22221751.2020.1729071
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METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.48
发表时间:2020-04-01
来源期刊:Infection
DOI:10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y
作者列表:["Cheng ZJ","Shan J"]

METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.

呼吸道感染方向

呼吸道感染分为上呼吸道感染与下呼吸道感染。上呼吸道感染是指自鼻腔至喉部之间的急性炎症的总称,是最常见的感染性疾病。下呼吸道感染是最常见的感染性疾患,治疗时必须明确引起感染的病原体以选择有效的抗生素。

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