- 作者列表："Ding J","Tuan WJ","Temte JL
:The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has rapidly spread across the world. As medical systems continue to develop vaccines and treatments, it is crucial for the public health community to establish nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) that can effectively mitigate the rate of SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread across highly populated residential areas, especially among individuals who have close contact with confirmed cases. A community-driven preparedness strategy has been implemented in metropolitan areas in China. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) has required that all COVID-19 confirmed cases be recorded and documented in a national notifiable disease surveillance system (NDSS). After receiving reports of newly confirmed cases, an epidemiological services team at the CCDC or trained medical professionals at local clinical facilities start a case-contact investigation. A task force performs home visits to infected individuals. Persons under investigation (PUIs) can stay in designated quarantine facilities for 14 days or in special circumstances can be quarantined at home. This community-based approach involved all stakeholders including local public health departments, public safety authorities, neighborhood councils, and community health centers.
: 新型冠状病毒 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 爆发已经迅速蔓延到世界各地。随着医疗系统不断开发疫苗和治疗，建立非药物干预措施 (NPIs) 对公共卫生界来说至关重要，可以有效地降低SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) 分布在人口稠密的居民区，尤其是与密切接触者有确诊病例的人。在中国的大都市地区实施了社区驱动的准备战略。中国疾病预防控制中心 (CCDC) 要求在国家传染病监测系统 (NDSS) 中记录和记录所有新型冠状病毒肺炎的确诊病例。在收到新确诊病例的报告后，CCDC的流行病学服务小组或当地临床机构训练有素的医疗专业人员开始进行病例接触调查。一个工作队对受感染的个人进行家访。接受调查的人员 (PUIs) 可以在指定的检疫设施停留 14 天或在特殊情况下可以在家中进行检疫d.这种基于社区的方法涉及所有利益相关者，包括地方公共卫生部门、公共安全机构、社区委员会和社区卫生中心。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.