- 作者列表："Zhao C","Viana A Jr","Wang Y","Wei HQ","Yan AH","Capasso R
:Since the outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in December 2019, it has spread to various regions and countries, forming a global pandemic. Reducing nosocomial infection is a new issue and challenge for all healthcare systems. Otolaryngology is a high-risk specialty as it close contact with upper respiratory tract mucous, secretions, droplets and aerosols during procedures and surgery. Therefore, infection prevention and control measures for this specialty are essential. Literatures on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and infection control measures of COVID-19 were reviewed, practical knowledge from first-line otolaryngologists in China, the United States, and Brazil were reviewed and collated. It was recommended that otolaryngology professionals should improve screening in suspected patients with relevant nasal and pharyngeal symptoms and signs, suspend non-emergency consultations and examinations in clinics, and rearrange the working procedures in operating rooms. The guidelines of personal protective equipment for swab sampling, endoscopy and surgery were listed. Indications for tracheotomy during the pandemic should be carefully considered to avoid unnecessary airway opening and aerosol-generation; precautions during surgery to reduce the risk of exposure and infection were illustrated. This review aimed to provide recommendations for otolaryngologists to enhance personal protection against COVID-19 and reduce the risk of nosocomial infection.
: 自 2019 年 12 月新型冠状病毒 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 爆发以来，已蔓延至各个地区和国家，形成全球性大流行。减少医院感染是所有医疗系统面临的新问题和挑战。耳鼻喉科是一个高风险的专业，因为它在手术和手术过程中与上呼吸道粘液，分泌物，飞沫和气溶胶密切接触者。因此，针对该专业的感染预防和控制措施是必不可少的。本文综述了新型冠状病毒肺炎流行病学临床特点及感染控制措施，并对中国、美国和巴西的一线耳鼻喉科医生的实践知识进行了回顾和整理。建议耳鼻喉科专业人员在有相关鼻、咽症状和体征的疑似患者中完善筛查，暂停非紧急会诊和门诊检查，重新安排手术室工作程序。列出了拭子取样、内镜检查和手术的个人防护用品指南。应仔细考虑大流行期间气管切开的适应症，以避免不必要的气道开放和气溶胶产生; 说明了手术期间的注意事项，以降低暴露和感染的风险。本综述旨在为耳鼻喉科医生加强对新型冠状病毒肺炎的个人防护和降低医院感染风险提供建议。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.