- 作者列表："Rahimi F","Talebi Bezmin Abadi A
:After the initial outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (now called COVID-19)-in Wuhan, China-and its subsequent fast dispersion throughout the world, many questions regarding its pathogenesis, genetic evolution, prevention, and transmission routes remain unanswered but fast explored. More than 100,000 confirmed, infected cases within a relatively short period of time globally corroborated the presumption that a pandemic will develop; such a pandemic will require a suite of global intervention measures. Consequently, different countries have reacted differently to the COVID-19 outbreak, but a uniform global response is necessary for tackling the pandemic. Managing the present or future COVID-19 outbreaks is not impossible but surely difficult. Barring the live-animal trade at the markets; revising the regulations and rules of customs, import or export across borders; supporting and expediting projects to develop vaccines and antiviral drugs; immediate quarantine of the involved regions; and also producing and supplying a large number of protective facemasks and preventing its stockpiling or smuggling are the main actions suggested to deal with the present or a forthcoming COVID-19 outbreaks. Increasing numbers of infected cases had heightened concerns about the public health and welfare. Thus, preparing for the next probable pandemic of COVID-19 demands scrutinization of the lessons we have learnt so far.
: SARS-CoV-2 疫情 (现在称为新型冠状病毒肺炎) 在中国武汉首次爆发及其随后在世界各地的快速扩散后，关于其发病机制、遗传进化、预防的许多问题，传播途径仍然没有答案，但探索得很快。在相对较短的时间内，超过 100,000 例确诊、感染病例在全球范围内证实了流行病将发展的假设; 这种流行病将需要一套全球干预措施。因此，不同的国家对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情作出了不同的反应，但应对这一流行病需要统一的全球应对措施。管理当前或未来的新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情并非不可能，但肯定很困难。禁止市场上的活动物贸易; 修订海关、进口或跨境出口的条例和规则; 支持和加快开发疫苗和抗病毒药物的项目; 对所涉地区立即进行检疫;此外，生产和供应大量保护性口罩并防止其储存或走私是应对目前或即将爆发的新型冠状病毒肺炎的主要行动。越来越多的感染病例加剧了对公共卫生和福利的关切。因此，为下一次可能的新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行做准备，需要了解我们迄今吸取的教训。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.