- 作者列表："Salvi R","Patankar P
:Novel Corona-virus Disease 2019 (nCOVID 19) is caused by a novel virulent corona virus and leads to potentially fatal virulent pneumonia and severe respiratory distress syndrome. It was initially declared as public health emergency if international concern by WHO followed by Pandemic on 12th March 2020. As of 10th April 2020, more than 1.5 million people are affected globally with around 95,000 deaths. Vaccines for this deadly virus are currently under development and many drugs used for other indications have been repurposed and investigated for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID 19. As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy. The current evidence of efficacy and ongoing research has been elaborated in the article. Besides, there has been evidence regarding inflammatory pathogenesis of this virus leading to cytokine storm in susceptible individuals. Thus, anti-proinflammatory cytokine drugs like Anakinra and Tocilizumab are undergoing multiple trials and some results are encouraging. Similarly, use of anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-37 and IL-38 is hypothesised to be useful and is under research. The situation is still evolving and hence there is yet no definitive therapy but to conclude the use of repurposed medications can be a boon till a definitive therapy and vaccines are developed.
: 新型Corona-病毒病 2019 (nCOVID 19) 是由一种新型强毒力corona病毒引起的，可导致潜在的致命毒力肺炎和严重呼吸窘迫综合征。它最初被世卫组织宣布为国际关注的突发公共卫生事件，随后于 2020 年 3 月 12 日大流行。截至 2020 年 4 月 10 日，全球超过 150万人受到影响，约 95,000 人死亡。这种致命病毒的疫苗目前正在开发中，许多用于其他适应症的药物已经被重新利用，并被研究用于预防和治疗COVID 19。根据世卫组织的团结试验，一些最有前途的候选人包括磷酸氯喹和羟氯喹，它们是抗疟疾药物，洛匹那韦-利托那韦联合或不联合干扰素是抗HIV药物和恢复期血浆治疗。目前的疗效证据和正在进行的研究已经在文章中阐述。此外，已经有证据表明该病毒的炎症发病机制导致易感个体的细胞因子风暴。因此，像Anakinra和Tocilizumab这样的抗炎细胞因子药物正在进行多次试验，一些结果令人鼓舞。同样，使用抗炎细胞因子如IL-37 和IL-38 被认为是有用的，正在研究中。这种情况仍在演变，因此还没有确定的治疗方法，但得出结论，在确定的治疗方法和疫苗开发之前，使用再利用的药物可能是一种福音。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.