- 作者列表："Deshmukh V","Tripathi SC","Pandey A","Deshmukh V","Vykoukal J","Patil A","Sontakke B
OBJECTIVE:Recent worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a current, ongoing life-threatening crisis, and international public health emergency. The early diagnosis and management of the disease remains a major challenge. In this review, we aim to summarize the updated epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A broad search of the literature was performed in "PubMed" "Medline" "Web of Science", "Google Scholar" and "World Health Organization-WHO" using the keywords "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus", "2019-nCoV", "COVID-19, "SARS", "SARS-CoV-2" "Epidemiology" "Transmission" "Pathogenesis" "Clinical Characteristics". We reviewed and documented the information obtained from literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical appearances of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS:The global cases of COVID-19 as of April 2, 2020, have risen to more than 900,000 and morbidity has reached more than 47,000. The incidence rate for COVID-19 has been predicted to be higher than the previous outbreaks of other coronavirus family members, including those of SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The main clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic stages to severe lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia. Most of the patients also presented with fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, myalgia and breathlessness. Individuals at higher risk for severe illness include elderly people and patients with a weakened immune system or that are suffering from an underlying chronic medical condition like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, respiratory illness or cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS:SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, currently affecting 170 countries and territories across the globe. There is still much to be understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 about its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies; this knowledge will be essential to both manage the current pandemic and to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in the future.
目的: 呼吸系统冠状病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒) 的病原体SARS-CoV-2 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 是最近在世界范围内爆发的，是当前威胁生命的危机和国际突发公共卫生事件。该病的早期诊断和治疗仍然是一个重大挑战。本文就新型冠状病毒流行病学病因、临床表现、诊断及预防控制等方面的SARS-CoV-2 进行综述。 材料和方法: 在 “PubMed” “Medline” “Web of Science” 中对文献进行广泛检索，“Google Scholar” 和 “世界卫生组织 (World Health Organization)-“ 使用关键字 “严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒” 、 “2019-nCoV” 、 “新型冠状病毒肺炎，传染性非典型肺炎”，“传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2” 流行病学 "" 发送"“发病机制” “临床特征”。我们审查和记录所获得的信息文献流行病学、发病机制及临床表现的SARS-CoV-2 感染. 结果: 全球新型冠状病毒肺炎病例数 2 0 年 4 月 2 日已上升至 900,000 以上，发病率达 47,000 以上。的发病率为新型冠状病毒肺炎预测高于以往暴发的其他冠状病毒家族成员，包括传染性非典型肺炎-CoV和中东呼吸综合征冠状病毒冠状病毒 (MERS-CoV).SARS-CoV-2 感染的主要临床表现从无症状期到肺炎形式的严重下呼吸道感染。大多数患者还表现为发热、咳嗽、喉咙痛、头痛乏力肌肉疼痛和呼吸困难。患有严重疾病的高风险个体包括老年人和免疫系统减弱的患者，或患有潜在的慢性疾病，如高血压，糖尿病，癌症，呼吸系统疾病或心血管疾病。 结论: SARS-Cov-2 已成为一个世界性的威胁，目前影响着全球 170 个国家和地区。关于其病毒学流行病学学和临床管理策略的SARS-CoV-2 仍有许多需要了解的地方; 这一知识对于管理当前的流行病和构想防止未来此类疫情爆发的全面措施至关重要。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.