Validation of the Seegene RV15 multiplex PCR for the detection of influenza A subtypes and influenza B lineages during national influenza surveillance in hospitalized adults.
在住院成人国家流感监测期间，验证seebene RV15 多重PCR检测甲型流感亚型和乙型流感谱系。
- 作者列表："LeBlanc JJ","ElSherif M","Mulpuru S","Warhuus M","Ambrose A","Andrew M","Boivin G","Bowie W","Chit A","Dos Santos G","Green K","Halperin SA","Hatchette TF","Ibarguchi B","Johnstone J","Katz K","Langley JM","Lagacé-Wiens P","Loeb M","Lund A","MacKinnon-Cameron D","McCarthy A","McElhaney JE","McGeer A","Poirier A","Powis J","Richardson D","Semret M","Shinde V","Smyth D","Trottier S","Valiquette L","Webster D","Ye L","McNeil SA
:Background. The Serious Outcomes Surveillance Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN SOS) has been performing active influenza surveillance since 2009 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01517191). Influenza A and B viruses are identified and characterized using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and multiplex testing has been performed on a subset of patients to identify other respiratory virus aetiologies. Since both methods can identify influenza A and B, a direct comparison was performed.Methods. Validated real-time RT-PCRs from the World Health Organization (WHO) to identify influenza A and B viruses, characterize influenza A viruses into the H1N1 or H3N2 subtypes and describe influenza B viruses belonging to the Yamagata or Victoria lineages. In a subset of patients, the Seeplex RV15 One-Step ACE Detection assay (RV15) kit was also used for the detection of other respiratory viruses.Results. In total, 1111 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested by RV15 and real-time RT-PCRs for influenza A and B identification and characterization. For influenza A, RV15 showed 98.0 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and 99.7 % accuracy. The performance characteristics of RV15 were similar for influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. For influenza B, RV15 had 99.2 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and 99.8 % accuracy, with similar assay performance being shown for both the Yamagata and Victoria lineages.Conclusions. Overall, the detection of circulating subtypes of influenza A and lineages of influenza B by RV15 was similar to detection by real-time RT-PCR. Multiplex testing with RV15 allows for a more comprehensive respiratory virus surveillance in hospitalized adults, without significantly compromising the reliability of influenza A or B virus detection.
: 背景。加拿大预防接种网络 (CIRN SOS) 的严重结局监测网络自 2009 年以来一直在进行主动流感监测 (ClinicalTrials.gov标识符: NCT01517191)。使用实时逆转录聚合酶链反应 (RT-PCR) 鉴定和表征甲型和乙型流感病毒es，并对一部分患者进行了多重检测，以确定其他呼吸道病毒病因。由于两种方法都可以识别甲型和乙型流感，因此进行了直接比较。方法.经验证的实时RT-pcr从世卫组织识别甲型和乙型流感病毒，将甲型流感病毒表征为H1N1 或H3N2 亚型，并描述属于山形或维多利亚谱系的乙型流感病毒。在一部分患者中，seoplex RV15 一步法ACE检测试验 (RV15) 试剂盒也用于其他呼吸道病毒的检测。结果.总共用RV15 和实时RT-pcr检测了 1111 份鼻咽拭子，用于甲型和乙型流感的鉴定和表征。对于甲型流感，RV15 显示出 98.0 的敏感性、 100 的特异性和 99.7 的准确性。RV15 的性能特征与甲型流感亚型H1N1 和H3N2 相似。对于b型流感，RV15 的灵敏度为 99.2，特异度为 100，准确度为 99.8，山形和维多利亚谱系的检测性能相似。结论。总体而言，RV15 对甲型流感循环亚型和乙型流感谱系的检测与实时RT-PCR检测相似。使用RV15 的多重检测允许在住院成人中进行更全面的呼吸道病毒监测，而不会显著损害甲型或乙型流感病毒检测的可靠性。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.