19 个州，2020 年 4 月，肉类和家禽加工设施工人中的新型冠状病毒肺炎。
- 作者列表："Dyal JW","Grant MP","Broadwater K","Bjork A","Waltenburg MA","Gibbins JD","Hale C","Silver M","Fischer M","Steinberg J","Basler CA","Jacobs JR","Kennedy ED","Tomasi S","Trout D","Hornsby-Myers J","Oussayef NL","Delaney LJ","Patel K","Shetty V","Kline KE","Schroeder B","Herlihy RK","House J","Jervis R","Clayton JL","Ortbahn D","Austin C","Berl E","Moore Z","Buss BF","Stover D","Westergaard R","Pray I","DeBolt M","Person A","Gabel J","Kittle TS","Hendren P","Rhea C","Holsinger C","Dunn J","Turabelidze G","Ahmed FS","deFijter S","Pedati CS","Rattay K","Smith EE","Luna-Pinto C","Cooley LA","Saydah S","Preacely ND","Maddox RA","Lundeen E","Goodwin B","Karpathy SE","Griffing S","Jenkins MM","Lowry G","Schwarz RD","Yoder J","Peacock G","Walke HT","Rose DA","Honein MA
:Congregate work and residential locations are at increased risk for infectious disease transmission including respiratory illness outbreaks. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is primarily spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Nationwide, the meat and poultry processing industry, an essential component of the U.S. food infrastructure, employs approximately 500,000 persons, many of whom work in proximity to other workers (1). Because of reports of initial cases of COVID-19, in some meat processing facilities, states were asked to provide aggregated data concerning the number of meat and poultry processing facilities affected by COVID-19 and the number of workers with COVID-19 in these facilities, including COVID-19-related deaths. Qualitative data gathered by CDC during on-site and remote assessments were analyzed and summarized. During April 9-27, aggregate data on COVID-19 cases among 115 meat or poultry processing facilities in 19 states were reported to CDC. Among these facilities, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 4,913 (approximately 3%) workers, and 20 COVID-19-related deaths were reported. Facility barriers to effective prevention and control of COVID-19 included difficulty distancing workers at least 6 feet (2 meters) from one another (2) and in implementing COVID-19-specific disinfection guidelines.* Among workers, socioeconomic challenges might contribute to working while feeling ill, particularly if there are management practices such as bonuses that incentivize attendance. Methods to decrease transmission within the facility include worker symptom screening programs, policies to discourage working while experiencing symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and social distancing by workers. Source control measures (e.g., the use of cloth face covers) as well as increased disinfection of high-touch surfaces are also important means of preventing SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Mitigation efforts to reduce transmission in the community should also be considered. Many of these measures might also reduce asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (3). Implementation of these public health strategies will help protect workers from COVID-19 in this industry and assist in preserving the critical meat and poultry production infrastructure (4).
: 聚集工作和居住地点的传染病传播风险增加，包括呼吸系统疾病爆发。SARS-CoV-2 是引起冠状病毒病 2019 病毒新型冠状病毒肺炎) 的病毒，主要通过呼吸道飞沫传播。在全国范围内，肉类和家禽加工业是美国食品基础设施的重要组成部分，雇用了大约 500,000 人，其中许多人与其他工人相邻工作 (1)。由于一些肉类加工设施中最初的新型冠状病毒肺炎案例报告，要求各国提供汇总数据，说明受新型冠状病毒肺炎影响的肉类和家禽加工设施的数量以及这些设施中新型冠状病毒肺炎的工人人数，包括与新型冠状病毒肺炎有关的死亡人数。分析和总结CDC在现场和远程评估期间收集的定性数据。在 4 月 9-27 日期间，向CDC报告了 19 个州的 115 个肉类或家禽加工设施中的新型冠状病毒肺炎病例的汇总数据。在这些设施中，4,913 名 (约 3%) 工人被诊断为新型冠状病毒肺炎，报告了 20 例新型冠状病毒肺炎相关死亡。设施壁垒的有效防控新型冠状病毒肺炎包括困难疏远工人至少 6英尺 (2 米) 彼此 (2) 和在执行新型冠状病毒肺炎特异性消毒指南.* 在工人中，社会经济挑战可能有助于在感觉不舒服的情况下工作，特别是如果有激励出勤的奖金等管理实践。减少设施内传播的方法包括工人症状筛查项目、在经历与新型冠状病毒肺炎相容的症状时劝阻工作的政策以及工人的社交距离。源头控制措施 (例如，使用布面罩) 以及增加高接触表面的消毒也是防止SARS-CoV-2 暴露的重要手段。还应考虑减少社区传播的缓解努力。许多这些措施也可能减少无症状和症状前传播 (3)。实施这些公共卫生战略将有助于保护该行业的工人免受新型冠状病毒肺炎，并有助于保护关键的肉类和家禽生产基础设施 (4)。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.