- 作者列表："Patel KP","Patel PA","Vunnam RR","Hewlett AT","Jain R","Jing R","Vunnam SR
:There is an increasing number of confirmed cases and deaths caused by the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributing to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. At this point, the need for further disease characterization is critical. COVID-19 is well established as a respiratory tract pathogen; however, recent studies have shown an increasing number of patients reporting gastrointestinal manifestations such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The time from onset of gastrointestinal symptoms to hospital presentation is often delayed compared to that of respiratory symptoms. It has been noted that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in fecal matter for an extended period of time, even after respiratory samples have tested negative and patients are asymptomatic. In this article, SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19 will be reviewed with consideration of the latest literature about gastrointestinal symptomatology, the mechanisms by which the virus may inflict damage, and the possibility of viral replication contributing to a fecal-oral route of transmission.
: 确诊病例 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 导致冠状病毒疾病 2 019 (严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒) 流行的新型冠状病毒肺炎和死亡人数越来越多。在这一点上，需要进一步的疾病表征是至关重要的。新型冠状病毒肺炎是公认的呼吸道病原体; 然而，最近的研究表明，越来越多的患者报告胃肠道表现，如腹泻，恶心，呕吐和腹痛。与呼吸道症状相比，胃肠道症状发作至医院就诊的时间往往延迟。已经注意到，即使在呼吸道样本检测为阴性且患者无症状后，也可以在粪便中长时间检测到SARS-CoV-2 RNA。在这篇文章中，SARS-CoV-2 及其疾病新型冠状病毒肺炎将审查审议的最新文献，胃肠道症状，机制病毒可能造成损失的，以及病毒复制促进粪-口传播途径的可能性。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.