- 作者列表："Foerch C","Friedauer L","Bauer B","Wolf T","Adam EH
BACKGROUND:Fingolimod is used for immune therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Long-term treatment is associated with a small increase in the risk of herpes virus reactivation and respiratory tract infections. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under Fingolimod treatment have not been described. METHODS AND RESULTS:We report a 57-year old female patient with a relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis under fingolimod treatment who experienced a severe COVID-19 infection in March 2020 (Extended Disability Status Scale: 2.0). Having peripheral lymphopenia typical for fingolimod treatment (total lymphocytes 0.39/nL [reference range 1.22-3.56]), the patient developed bilateral interstitial pneumonia with multiple ground-glass opacities on chest CT. Fingolimod medication was stopped. On the intensive care unit, non-invasive ventilation was used to provide oxygen and ventilation support regularly. Over the following two days, oxygenation improved, and the patient was transferred to a normal ward five days after admission. CONCLUSION:The implications fingolimod has on COVID-19 are complex. As an S1P analogue, fingolimod might enhance lung endothelial cell integrity. In addition, in case of a so-called cytokine storm, immunomodulation might be beneficial to reduce mortality. Future studies are needed to explore the risks and therapeutic effects of fingolimod in COVID-19 patients.
背景: 芬戈莫德用于多发性硬化症患者的免疫治疗。长期治疗与疱疹病毒再激活和呼吸道感染风险的小幅增加有关。未描述接受芬戈莫德治疗的冠状病毒病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 患者。 方法和结果: 我们报告了 1 例在芬戈莫德治疗下复发缓解型多发性硬化的 57 岁女性患者，她在 2020 年 3 月经历了严重的新型冠状病毒肺炎感染 (扩展残疾状况量表: 2.0)。具有芬戈莫德治疗典型的外周淋巴细胞减少 (总淋巴细胞 0.39/nL [参考范围 1.22-3.56])，患者出现双侧间质肺炎，胸部CT上有多个磨玻璃影。停用芬戈莫德药物。在重症监护病房，采用无创通气，定期提供氧气和通气支持。在接下来的两天里，氧合改善，患者在入院五天后被转移到正常病房。 结论: 芬戈莫德对新型冠状病毒肺炎的影响是复杂的。作为S1P类似物，芬戈莫德可能增强肺内皮细胞完整性。此外，在所谓的细胞因子风暴的情况下，免疫调节可能有利于降低死亡率。需要进一步的研究来探讨芬戈莫德在新型冠状病毒肺炎患者中的风险和治疗效果。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.