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A Review of Current Interventions for COVID-19 Prevention.

当前预防新型冠状病毒肺炎干预措施综述。

  • 影响因子:2.10
  • DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.04.020
  • 作者列表:"Pradhan D","Biswasroy P","Kumar Naik P","Ghosh G","Rath G
  • 发表时间:2020-07-01
Abstract

:The recent outbreak of CoVID-19 is declared as a global public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). A fresh figure of 2268011 positive cases and 155185 death records (till April 18th 2020) across the worldwide signify the severity of this viral infection. CoVID-19 infection is a pandemic, surface to surface communicable disease with a case fatality rate of 3.4% as estimated by WHO up to March 3rd 2020. Unfortunately, the current unavailability of an effective antiviral drug and approved vaccine, worsen the situation more critical. Implementation of an effective preventive measure is the only option left to counteract CoVID-19. Further, a retrospective analysis provides evidence that contemplates the decisive role of preventive measures in controlling severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. A statistical surveillance report of WHO reflects, maintaining a coherent infection, prevention and control guideline resulted in a 30% reduction in healthcare-associated infections. The effectiveness of preventive measures completely relies on the strength of surface disinfectants, the composition of hand sanitizer, appropriate material for the manufacture of personal protective equipment (PPE). This review enlightens the various preventive measures such as a suitable selection of surface disinfectants, appropriate hand sanitization, and empowering the PPE that could be a potential intervention to fight against CoVID-19.

摘要

: 最近爆发的新型冠状病毒肺炎被国际关注的突发公共卫生事件宣布为全球世卫组织。全球范围内 2268011 例阳性病例和 155185 例死亡记录 (截至 2020 年 4 月 18 日) 的新数字表明了这种病毒感染的严重程度。新型冠状病毒肺炎感染是一种流行病,表面传染性疾病,据世卫组织估计,到 2020 年 3 月 3 日病死率为 3.4%。不幸的是,目前缺乏有效的抗病毒药物和批准的疫苗,恶化的情况更加危急。实施有效的预防措施是抵消新型冠状病毒肺炎的唯一选择。此外,一项回顾性分析提供了证据,考虑了预防措施在控制 2003 年严重急性呼吸综合征 (传染性非典型肺炎) 爆发中的决定性作用。世卫组织的统计监测报告反映,保持一致的感染,预防和控制指南导致医疗保健相关感染减少 30%。预防措施的有效性完全依赖于表面消毒剂的强度,洗手液的组成,用于制造个人防护设备 (PPE) 的适当材料。本综述启发了各种预防措施,如适当选择表面消毒剂、适当的洗手和授权PPE,这些可能是对抗新型冠状病毒肺炎的潜在干预措施。

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发表时间:2020-02-17
DOI:10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79
作者列表:["Lim J","Jeon S","Shin HY","Kim MJ","Seong YM","Lee WJ","Choe KW","Kang YM","Lee B","Park SJ"]

METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.

影响因子:4.36
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METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.48
发表时间:2020-04-01
来源期刊:Infection
DOI:10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y
作者列表:["Cheng ZJ","Shan J"]

METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.

呼吸道感染方向

呼吸道感染分为上呼吸道感染与下呼吸道感染。上呼吸道感染是指自鼻腔至喉部之间的急性炎症的总称,是最常见的感染性疾病。下呼吸道感染是最常见的感染性疾患,治疗时必须明确引起感染的病原体以选择有效的抗生素。

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