Development and characterization of 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the white-bellied pangolin Phataginus tricuspis (Mammalia, Pholidota).
白腹穿山甲 (mammyalia，Pholidota) 20 个多态性微卫星标记的开发和表征。
- 作者列表："Aguillon S","Din Dipita A","Lecompte E","Missoup AD","Tindo M","Gaubert P
:Pangolins, or scaly anteaters, have recently been flagshiped as one of the most illegally traded mammals, and as a corollary, as potential intermediate hosts at the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to improve the traceability of their trade, we developed 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the white-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), the species most frequently found on African bushmeat markets. We genotyped 24 white-bellied pangolins from the Douala market, Cameroon, originating from the Ebo forest c. 75 km north-east of Douala. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12 (mean = 6.95), and mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.592 (0.208-0.875) and 0.671 (0.469-0.836), respectively. Genetic diversity was higher than that cross-estimated from microsatellite loci developed for other species of pangolins. Two loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two loci showed linkage disequilibrium. Genetic variance (PCoA) was increased with the addition of 13 pangolins of unknown origin, possibly suggesting that the Douala market is fed from differentiated source populations of white-bellied pangolins. Each of the 37 individuals had a unique multilocus genotype. The unbiased probability of identity (uPI) and the probability of identity among siblings (PIsibs) were both very low (uPI = 8.443 e-21; PIsibs = 1.011 e-07). Only five microsatellite loci were needed to reach the conservative value of PIsibs < 0.01, overall indicating a powerful discriminating power of our combined loci. These 20 newly developed microsatellite loci might prove useful in tracing the local-to-global trade of the white-bellied pangolin, and will hopefully contribute to the DNA-assisted implementation of future conservation strategies at reasonable costs.
穿山甲，或称有鳞的食蚁兽，最近被标为最非法交易的哺乳动物之一，并作为一个推论，作为潜在的中间宿主在新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行的起源。为了提高其贸易的可追溯性，我们为非洲丛林肉类市场上最常见的物种白腹穿山甲 (Phataginus truspis) 开发了 20 个多态性微卫星位点。我们对来自杜阿拉市场的 24 只白腹穿山甲进行了基因分型，它们来自杜阿拉东北部 75千米C埃博森林c。每个位点的等位基因数范围为 4 ~ 12 个 (平均值 = 6.95)，平均观察到和预期的杂合子为 0.592 (0.208-0.875) 和 0.671 (0。4 69-0.836)，分别。遗传多样性高于其他种类穿山甲微卫星位点的交叉估计。两个位点偏离Hardy-Weinberg平衡，两个位点出现连锁不平衡。遗传方差 (PCoA) 随着 13 种来历不明的穿山甲的添加而增加，可能提示Douala市场是从白腹穿山甲的分化源种群中喂养的。37 例个体均具有独特的多位点基因型。无偏的同一性概率 (uPI) 和兄弟姐妹之间的同一性概率 (PIsibs) 都很低 (uPI = 8.443 e-21; PIsibs = 1.011 e-07)。仅需要 5 个微卫星位点就能达到pisbss <0.01 的保守值，总体上表明我们组合位点具有强大的辨别能力。这 20 个新发现的微卫星位点可能有助于追踪白腹穿山甲的本地到全球贸易，并有望以合理的成本为DNA辅助实施未来的保护战略做出贡献。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.