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Understanding COVID-19: Digit ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in national case fatality rates.

了解新型冠状病毒肺炎: 数字比率 (2D:4D) 和国家病死率的性别差异。

  • 影响因子:2.23
  • DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105074
  • 作者列表:"Manning JT","Fink B
  • 发表时间:2020-07-01
Abstract

BACKGROUND:The reported national case fatality rates (CFRs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a sex bias with males > females. The relative lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers (digit ratio; 2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic (males < females) proxy of fetal sex steroids (low 2D:4D indicates high prenatal testosterone/low prenatal estrogen). AIM:To examine sex-specific relationships of 2D:4D per nation with national values of COVID-19 CFRs. STUDY DESIGN:COVID-19 CFRs and the percent of male deaths were related to mean national (self-reported) 2D:4D by sex and hand from a large online survey (the BBC Internet Study). SUBJECTS:103,482 men and 83,366 women. OUTCOME MEASURES:Relationships of mean national 2D:4D with CFRs from 41 countries and with national male death rates from 16 countries. RESULTS:Male right and left hand 2D:4D showed positive relationships with CFR. These relationships remained significant after removing the influence of female 2D:4D. A positive association of male right and left 2D:4D was detected with the percentage of male deaths. CONCLUSIONS:At the national level, high mean 2D:4D (indicating low prenatal testosterone/high prenatal estrogen) is associated with high CFRs and percent male mortality. At the individual level, high 2D:4D may be a risk factor for severity of COVID-19 in males. We speculate that male 2D:4D is a negative correlate for expression of the SARS-CoV2 receptor (ACE2).

摘要

背景: 报告的冠状病毒疾病 2019 的全国病例死亡率 (CFRs) (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 显示男性> 女性的性别偏倚。指数 (2D) 和戒指 (4D) 手指的相对长度 (数字比; 2D:4D) 是一种性别二形性 (男性 <女性) 胎儿性类固醇的代理 (低 2D:4D表示产前睾酮高/产前雌激素低)。 目的: 探讨每个国家 2D:4D与新型冠状病毒肺炎CFRs国家值的性别特异性关系。 研究设计: CFRs新型冠状病毒肺炎和男性死亡百分比与平均国家 (自我报告) 2D:4D (性别和手) 相关,来自一项大型在线调查 (BBC互联网研究)。 研究对象: 男性 103,482 例,女性 83,366 例。 结局指标: 平均国家 2D:4D与来自 41 个国家的CFRs和来自 16 个国家的国家男性死亡率的关系。 结果: 男性右手和左手 2D:4D与CFR呈正相关。去除女性 2D:4D的影响后,这些关系仍然显著。男性右侧和左侧 2D:4D与男性死亡百分比检测到正相关。 结论: 在国家一级,高平均 2D:4D (表明产前睾酮水平低/产前雌激素水平高) 与高CFRs和男性死亡率百分比相关。在个体水平,高 2D:4D可能是男性新型冠状病毒肺炎严重程度的危险因素。我们推测男性 2D:4D与SARS-CoV2 受体 (ACE2) 的表达呈负相关。

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翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.48
发表时间:2020-04-01
来源期刊:Infection
DOI:10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y
作者列表:["Cheng ZJ","Shan J"]

METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.

呼吸道感染方向

呼吸道感染分为上呼吸道感染与下呼吸道感染。上呼吸道感染是指自鼻腔至喉部之间的急性炎症的总称,是最常见的感染性疾病。下呼吸道感染是最常见的感染性疾患,治疗时必须明确引起感染的病原体以选择有效的抗生素。

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