Understanding COVID-19: Digit ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in national case fatality rates.

了解新型冠状病毒肺炎: 数字比率 (2D:4D) 和国家病死率的性别差异。

  • 影响因子:2.23
  • DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105074
  • 作者列表:"Manning JT","Fink B
  • 发表时间:2020-07-01

BACKGROUND:The reported national case fatality rates (CFRs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a sex bias with males > females. The relative lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers (digit ratio; 2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic (males < females) proxy of fetal sex steroids (low 2D:4D indicates high prenatal testosterone/low prenatal estrogen). AIM:To examine sex-specific relationships of 2D:4D per nation with national values of COVID-19 CFRs. STUDY DESIGN:COVID-19 CFRs and the percent of male deaths were related to mean national (self-reported) 2D:4D by sex and hand from a large online survey (the BBC Internet Study). SUBJECTS:103,482 men and 83,366 women. OUTCOME MEASURES:Relationships of mean national 2D:4D with CFRs from 41 countries and with national male death rates from 16 countries. RESULTS:Male right and left hand 2D:4D showed positive relationships with CFR. These relationships remained significant after removing the influence of female 2D:4D. A positive association of male right and left 2D:4D was detected with the percentage of male deaths. CONCLUSIONS:At the national level, high mean 2D:4D (indicating low prenatal testosterone/high prenatal estrogen) is associated with high CFRs and percent male mortality. At the individual level, high 2D:4D may be a risk factor for severity of COVID-19 in males. We speculate that male 2D:4D is a negative correlate for expression of the SARS-CoV2 receptor (ACE2).


背景: 报告的冠状病毒疾病 2019 的全国病例死亡率 (CFRs) (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 显示男性> 女性的性别偏倚。指数 (2D) 和戒指 (4D) 手指的相对长度 (数字比; 2D:4D) 是一种性别二形性 (男性 <女性) 胎儿性类固醇的代理 (低 2D:4D表示产前睾酮高/产前雌激素低)。 目的: 探讨每个国家 2D:4D与新型冠状病毒肺炎CFRs国家值的性别特异性关系。 研究设计: CFRs新型冠状病毒肺炎和男性死亡百分比与平均国家 (自我报告) 2D:4D (性别和手) 相关,来自一项大型在线调查 (BBC互联网研究)。 研究对象: 男性 103,482 例,女性 83,366 例。 结局指标: 平均国家 2D:4D与来自 41 个国家的CFRs和来自 16 个国家的国家男性死亡率的关系。 结果: 男性右手和左手 2D:4D与CFR呈正相关。去除女性 2D:4D的影响后,这些关系仍然显著。男性右侧和左侧 2D:4D与男性死亡百分比检测到正相关。 结论: 在国家一级,高平均 2D:4D (表明产前睾酮水平低/产前雌激素水平高) 与高CFRs和男性死亡率百分比相关。在个体水平,高 2D:4D可能是男性新型冠状病毒肺炎严重程度的危险因素。我们推测男性 2D:4D与SARS-CoV2 受体 (ACE2) 的表达呈负相关。



作者列表:["Lim J","Jeon S","Shin HY","Kim MJ","Seong YM","Lee WJ","Choe KW","Kang YM","Lee B","Park SJ"]

METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.

作者列表:["Zhang W","Du RH","Li B","Zheng XS","Yang XL","Hu B","Wang YY","Xiao GF","Yan B","Shi ZL","Zhou P"]

METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.

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作者列表:["Cheng ZJ","Shan J"]

METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.