COVID-19 Monitoring and Response Among U.S. Air Force Basic Military Trainees - Texas, March-April 2020.
新型冠状病毒肺炎美国空军基本军事学员的监测和反应-德克萨斯州，2020 年 3-4 月。
- 作者列表："Marcus JE","Frankel DN","Pawlak MT","Casey TM","Blackwell RS","Tran FV","Dolan MJ","Yun HC
:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in substantial morbidity and mortality since it was first described in December 2019 (1). Based on epidemiologic data showing spread in congregate settings (2-4), national, state, and local governments instituted significant restrictions on large gatherings to prevent transmission of disease in early March 2020. This and other nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have shown initial success in slowing the pandemic across the country (5). This report examines the first 7 weeks (March 1-April 18) of implementation of NPIs in Basic Military Training (BMT) at a U.S. Air Force base. In a population of 10,579 trainees, COVID-19 incidence was limited to five cases (47 per 100,000 persons), three of which were in persons who were contacts of the first patient. Transmission of symptomatic COVID-19 was successfully limited using strategies of quarantine, social distancing, early screening of trainees, rapid isolation of persons with suspected cases, and monitored reentry into training for trainees with positive test results after resolution of symptoms.
: 冠状病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 大流行自 2019 年 12 月首次描述以来已导致大量发病率和死亡率 (1)。根据显示在聚集环境中传播的流行病学数据 (2-4)，国家、州和地方政府在 2020 年 3 月初对大型聚集实施了重大限制，以防止疾病传播。这一干预措施和其他非药物干预措施 (NPIs) 在减缓全国范围内的大流行方面取得了初步成功 。本报告审查了在美国空军基地基本军事训练 (BMT) 中实施NPIs的前 7 周 (3 月 1 日至 4 月 18 日)。在 10,579 名受训人员中，新型冠状病毒肺炎的发生率限于 5 例 (每 100,000 人中有 47 人)，其中 3 人是第一个病人的接触者。利用检疫、社会疏远、学员早期筛查、快速隔离新型冠状病毒肺炎患者等策略成功地限制了症状性疑似病例的传播，并对症状缓解后检测结果为阳性的学员进行再入训练监测。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.