澳大利亚新型冠状病毒肺炎流行病学学报告 (2020 年 5 月 17 日报周至 23:59 AEST)。
- 作者列表："COVID-19 National Incident Room Surveillance Team.
:Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 17 May 2020: notifications = 7,075; deaths = 100. The incidence of new cases of COVID-19 has reduced dramatically since a peak in mid-March. Social distancing measures, public health action and the reduction in international travel have likely been effective in slowing the spread of the disease, in the Australian community. Testing rates over the past week have increased markedly, with a continued very low proportion of people testing positive. These low rates of detection are indicative of low levels of COVID-19 transmission. It is important that testing rates and community adherence to public health measures remain high to support the continued suppression of the virus, particularly in vulnerable high-risk groups and settings. New cases of COVID-19 are currently being reported by by only some jurisdictions, albeit at relatively low rates. Although case numbers are low, new cases tend to still be a mix of overseas-acquired and locally-acquired infections. Most locally-acquired cases can be linked back to a known case or cluster. Although the proportion of locally-acquired cases has increased, the overall rate of new cases, regardless of place of acquisition, continues to decrease. The crude case fatality rate in Australia remains low (1.4%), compared with the WHO reported global rate (6.9%). The low case fatality rate is likely reflective of high case detection and high quality of health care services in Australia. Deaths from COVID-19 in Australia have occurred predominantly among the elderly and those with comorbidities, with no deaths occurring in those under 40 years. The highest rate of COVID-19 continues to be among people aged 60-79 years. One third of all cases in this age group have been associated with several outbreaks linked to cruise ships. The lowest rate of disease is in young children, a pattern reflected in international reports. Internationally, while the number of new cases each day remains relatively stable at the global level, some areas such as Brazil and India are showing a dramatic rise in reported cases. Although some low-income countries have so far reported few cases, it is possible that this is due to limited diagnostic and public health capacity, and may not be reflective of true disease incidence.
: 截至 2020 年 5 月 17 日澳大利亚确诊病例: 通知 = 7,075; 死亡 = 100。自 3 月中旬达到高峰以来，新型冠状病毒肺炎新发病例的发生率大幅下降。在澳大利亚社区，社会疏远措施、公共卫生行动和减少国际旅行可能有效地减缓了疾病的传播。过去一周的检测率显著上升，检测阳性的比例仍然很低。这些低检出率表明新型冠状病毒肺炎传播水平低。重要的是，检测率和社区对公共卫生措施的依从性仍然很高，以支持病毒的持续抑制，特别是在脆弱的高危人群和环境中。目前只有一些司法管辖区报告了新的新型冠状病毒肺炎案件，尽管比率相对较低。虽然病例数较低，但新病例仍倾向于海外获得性和局部获得性感染的混合。大多数局部获得性病例可以与已知病例或集群联系起来。虽然当地获得的病例比例有所增加，但无论获得地点如何，新病例的总体比率继续下降。与世卫组织报告的全球原油病死率率 (1.4%) 相比，澳大利亚原油价格仍然较低 (6.9%)。低病死率可能反映了澳大利亚高病例检出率和高质量的医疗保健服务。澳大利亚的新型冠状病毒肺炎死亡主要发生在老年人和有合并症的人，40 岁以下的人没有死亡。新型冠状病毒肺炎率最高的仍然是 60-79 岁的人。该年龄组中三分之一的病例与几次与游轮相关的暴发有关。发病率最低的是幼儿，这一模式反映在国际报告中。在国际上，虽然每天新病例的数量在全球一级保持相对稳定，但巴西和印度等一些地区的报告病例急剧增加。尽管一些低收入国家迄今报告的病例很少，但这可能是由于诊断和公共卫生能力有限，可能无法反映真正的疾病发病率。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.