- 作者列表："Friedrich F","Valadão MC","Brum M","Comaru T","Pitrez PM","Jones MH","Pinto LA","Scotta MC
INTRODUCTION:Pertussis is an important public health problem worldwide, especially in infants. An increase in the incidence in many countries occurred after 2010, including Brazil. In 2013, dTpa vaccine was introduced in the Brazil national immunization schedule of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the national trends in the incidence of pertussis in Brazil in children under 1 year old, and the impact of the introduction of dTpa vaccine during pregnancy. METHODS:The incidence of hospitalizations and non-hospitalized confirmed cases of pertussis in neonates (< 1 month age) and young infants (1 month-< 1 year age) were analyzed, comparing the incidence in pre maternal vaccination (2011-2013) with the post-vaccination (2015-2017). We used non-respiratory hospitalizations as comparison, during the same period. A database of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (DATASUS) was used to analyze cases from 2007 to 2017 and the subsets of 2011-2013 and 2015-2017, after Pertussis resurgence. The vaccination data was accessed through the link of the Information System of the National Immunization Program (pni.datasus.gov.br). RESULTS:Between 2007 and 2017, 17,818 children under one year of age were hospitalized due to pertussis in Brazil. In the pre maternal vaccination period 2011-2013, the mean annual incidence of non-hospitalized confirmed cases of pertussis in children under 1 month was 722.2 / 100,000 and in the period of 2015-2017 the average was 377.3 / 100,000, representing a decrease of 47.7% [IRR 0.52 (0.46-0.59)]. At those periods of time, the average incidence per year for children of one month-< 1 year aged was 64.9 / 100,000 (2011-2013) and 29.3 / 100,000 (2015-2017) [IRR 0.45 (CI 0.29-0.69)]. CONCLUSION:Vaccination of pregnant woman coincides with the reduction in the number of cases of pertussis in children under 1 month of age from 2015. Immunization of pregnant woman seems to have an important impact on the prevention of the disease in young infants who have not yet received their own pertussis vaccine.
导读: 百日咳是全球范围内的重要公共卫生问题，尤其是在婴幼儿中。2010 年后，包括巴西在内的许多国家的发病率都有所增加。2013 年，在巴西孕妇预防接种计划中引入了dTpa疫苗。本研究的目的是评估巴西 1 岁以下儿童百日咳发病率的国家趋势，以及怀孕期间引入dTpa疫苗的影响。 方法: 分析新生儿 (< 1 个月) 和小婴儿 (1 个月-< 1 岁) 百日咳住院和非住院确诊病例的发生率，比较母亲接种前 (2011-2013) 与接种后 (2015-2017) 的发病率。我们使用非呼吸住院作为比较，在同一时期。使用巴西卫生部 (DATASUS) 的数据库分析 2007-2017 年的病例以及百日咳复苏后 2011-2013 和 2015-2017 的子集。接种数据通过国家预防接种规划信息系统 (pni.datasus.gov.br) 链接访问。 结果: 在 2007 至 2017 之间，巴西有 17,818 名 1 岁以下儿童因百日咳住院。在孕前疫苗接种期 2011-2013，1 个月以下儿童百日咳非住院确诊病例年平均发病率为 722.2/100,000，2015 ~ 2017 年平均发病率为 377.3/100,000，代表减少 47.7% [IRR 0.52 (0.46-0.59)]。在这些时期，一个月 <1 岁的儿童每年的平均发病率为 64.9 / 100,000 (2011-2013) 和 29.3 / 100,000 (2015-2017) [IRR 0.45 (CI 0.29-0.69)]。 结论: 从 2015 年起，孕妇接种疫苗与 1 月龄以下儿童百日咳病例数的减少相吻合。孕妇预防接种对尚未接种过自己的百日咳疫苗的小婴儿预防该病有重要影响。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.