Emergence of human avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in Wenshan City in Southwest China, 2017.
出现人感染甲型禽流感 (H7N9) 病毒感染文山市西南地区，2017.
- 作者列表："Jiang L","Zhao X","Xu W","Zhou X","Luo C","Zhou J","Fu X","Chen Y","Li D
BACKGROUND:The emergence of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Wenshan City, southwestern China in 2017. The study describes the epidemiological and virological features of the outbreak and discusses the origin of the infection. METHODS:Poultry exposure and timelines of key events for each patient were collected. Samples derived from the patients, their close contacts, and environments were tested for influenza A(H7N9) virus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Genetic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. RESULTS:Five patients were reported in the outbreak. An epidemiological investigation showed that all patients had been exposed at live poultry markets. The A(H7N9) isolates from these patients had low pathogenicity in avian species. Both epidemiological investigations of chicken sources and phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences indicated that the source of infection was from Guangxi Province, which lies 100 km to the east of Wenshan City. CONCLUSIONS:In the study, a sudden emergence of human cases of H7N9 was documented in urban area of Wenshan City. Chickens were an important carrier in the H7N9 virus spreading from Guangxi to Wenshan. Hygienic management of live poultry markets and virological screening of chickens transported across regions should be reinforced to limit the spread of H7N9 virus.
背景: 2017 年中国西南部文山市报告出现人感染甲型H7N9 禽流感病毒。该研究描述了暴发的流行病学和病毒学特征，并讨论了感染的起源。 方法: 收集每个患者的家禽暴露和关键事件的时间表。通过实时逆转录聚合酶链反应对来自患者、其密切接触者和环境的样本进行甲型H7N9 流感病毒检测。还进行了遗传测序和系统发育分析。 结果: 疫情中报告了 5 例患者。流行病学调查显示，所有患者都曾在活禽市场接触过。这些患者的A(H7N9) 分离株在禽类中致病性低。鸡源流行病学调查和病毒基因序列的系统发育分析表明，该传染源来自广西，位于文山市东部 100 km处。 结论: 在研究中，文山市城区突然出现了人感染H7N9 病例。鸡是广西向文山传播H7N9 病毒的重要带菌者。应加强活禽市场的卫生管理和跨区域运输鸡的病毒学筛查，以限制H7N9 病毒的传播。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.