The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment.
新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 爆发的前 75 天: 最新进展、预防和治疗。
- 作者列表："Yan Y","Shin WI","Pang YX","Meng Y","Lai J","You C","Zhao H","Lester E","Wu T","Pang CH
:The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV) outbreak has engulfed an unprepared world amidst a festive season. The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2, believed to have originated from infected bats, is the seventh member of enveloped RNA coronavirus. Specifically, the overall genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 is 96.2% identical to that of bat coronavirus termed BatCoV RaTG13. Although the current mortality rate of 2% is significantly lower than that of SARS (9.6%) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (35%), SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and transmissible from human to human with an incubation period of up to 24 days. Some statistical studies have shown that, on average, one infected patient may lead to a subsequent 5.7 confirmed cases. Since the first reported case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 on December 1, 2019, in Wuhan, China, there has been a total of 60,412 confirmed cases with 1370 fatalities reported in 25 different countries as of February 13, 2020. The outbreak has led to severe impacts on social health and the economy at various levels. This paper is a review of the significant, continuous global effort that was made to respond to the outbreak in the first 75 days. Although no vaccines have been discovered yet, a series of containment measures have been implemented by various governments, especially in China, in the effort to prevent further outbreak, whilst various medical treatment approaches have been used to successfully treat infected patients. On the basis of current studies, it would appear that the combined antiviral treatment has shown the highest success rate. This review aims to critically summarize the most recent advances in understanding the coronavirus, as well as the strategies in prevention and treatment.
: 最近的新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2，以前称为 2019-nCoV) 爆发，在节日期间吞没了一个毫无准备的世界。被认为起源于被感染蝙蝠的人畜共患SARS-CoV-2 是包膜RNA冠状病毒的第七个成员。具体地说，SARS-CoV-2 的总基因组序列与称为BatCoV ratg13 的bat冠状病毒的基因组序列 96.2% 相同。虽然目前的死亡率为 2% 显著低于传染性非典型肺炎 (9.6%) 和中东呼吸综合征 (35%)，传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2 传染性强传染性人与人之间的潜伏期可达 24 天.一些统计研究表明，平均而言，一个受感染的患者可能导致随后的 5.7 确诊病例。自 20 1 9 年 12 月 1 日在中国武汉报道首例由新型冠状病毒肺炎引起的冠状病毒病 20 1 9 (SARS-CoV-2 1 9) 以来，有 60，4 1 2 确诊病例与 1 370 人死亡，在 25 个不同国家二月 1 3，2020.这次爆发对社会健康和各级经济造成了严重影响。本文回顾了在最初的 75 天里为应对疫情所做的重大、持续的全球努力。虽然还没有发现疫苗，但各国政府，特别是中国政府，为防止进一步爆发，已经实施了一系列遏制措施，虽然各种医疗方法已被用于成功治疗感染患者。根据目前的研究，似乎联合抗病毒治疗显示出最高的成功率。本综述旨在批判性地总结冠状病毒理解的最新进展，以及预防和治疗的策略。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.