- 作者列表："Nicola M","O'Neill N","Sohrabi C","Khan M","Agha M","Agha R
:COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic. To date, COVID-19 has affected over 2.5 million people worldwide, resulting in over 170,000 reported deaths. Numerous preventative strategies and non-pharmaceutical interventions have been employed to mitigate the spread of disease including careful infection control, the isolation of patients, and social distancing. Management is predominantly focused on the provision of supportive care, with oxygen therapy representing the major treatment intervention. Medical therapy involving corticosteroids and antivirals have also been encouraged as part of critical management schemes. However, there is at present no specific antiviral recommended for the treatment of COVID-19, and no vaccine is currently available. Despite the strategic implementation of these measures, the number of new reported cases continues to rise at a profoundly alarming rate. As new findings emerge, there is an urgent need for up-to-date management guidelines. In response to this call, we review what is currently known regarding the management of COVID-19, and offer an evidence-based review of current practice.
: 新型冠状病毒肺炎现已被宣布为大流行。到目前为止，新型冠状病毒肺炎影响了全球超过 250万人，导致超过 170,000 人死亡。已经采用了许多预防策略和非药物干预措施来缓解疾病的传播，包括仔细控制感染、隔离患者和社会疏远。管理主要集中在提供支持治疗，氧疗代表主要治疗干预。涉及皮质类固醇和抗病毒药物的药物治疗也被鼓励作为关键管理计划的一部分。然而，目前尚无特异性抗病毒药物推荐用于新型冠状病毒肺炎的治疗，目前也没有疫苗。尽管这些措施在战略上得到实施，但新报告病例的数量继续以惊人的速度增长。随着新发现的出现，迫切需要最新的管理指南。为了响应这一呼吁，我们回顾了目前对新型冠状病毒肺炎管理的了解，并对当前的实践进行了循证回顾。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.