Preparation for Quarantine on the Cruise Ship Diamond Princess in Japan due to COVID-19.


  • 影响因子:0
  • DOI:10.2196/18821
  • 作者列表:"Yamahata Y","Shibata A
  • 发表时间:2020-05-11

BACKGROUND:Japan implemented a large-scale quarantine on the Diamond Princess cruise ship in an attempt to control the spread of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in February 2020. OBJECTIVE:We aim to describe the medical activities initiated and difficulties in implementing quarantine on a cruise ship. METHODS:Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed for all 3711 people (2666 passengers and 1045 crew) on board. RESULTS:Of those tested, 696 (18.8%) tested positive for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), of which 410 (58.9%) were asymptomatic. We also confirmed that 54% of the asymptomatic patients with a positive RT-PCR result had lung opacities on chest computed tomography. There were many difficulties in implementing quarantine, such as creating a dividing traffic line between infectious and noninfectious passengers, finding hospitals and transportation providers willing to accept these patients, transporting individuals, language barriers, and supporting daily life. As of March 8, 2020, 31 patients (4.5% of patients with positive RT-PCR results) were hospitalized and required ventilator support or intensive care, and 7 patients (1.0% of patients with positive RT-PCR results) had died. CONCLUSIONS:There were several difficulties in implementing large-scale quarantine and obtaining medical support on the cruise ship. In the future, we need to prepare for patients' transfer and the admitting hospitals when disembarking the passengers. We recommend treating the crew the same way as the passengers to control the infection. We must also draw a plan for the future, to protect travelers and passengers from emerging infectious diseases on cruise ships.


背景: 日本对钻石公主号游轮实施大规模检疫,试图控制 2020 年 2 月新型冠状病毒号新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 的蔓延。 目的: 我们旨在描述游轮上开始的医疗活动和实施检疫的困难。 方法: 对机上所有 3711 人 (2666 名乘客和 1045 名机组人员) 进行逆转录-聚合酶链反应 (RT-PCR) 检测SARS-CoV-2。 结果: 696 例 (18.8%) 冠状病毒疾病 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 检测呈阳性,其中 410 例 (58.9%) 无症状。我们还证实,54% RT-PCR结果阳性的无症状患者在胸部计算机断层扫描中出现肺部混浊。实施检疫有许多困难,如在传染病和非传染病乘客之间建立交通分界线,找到愿意接受这些患者的医院和运输提供者,运送个人,语言障碍,支持日常生活。截至 2020 年 3 月 8 日,31 例患者 (RT-PCR结果阳性患者的 4.5%) 住院并需要呼吸机支持或重症监护,7 例患者 (RT-PCR阳性患者的 1.0%) 死亡。 结论: 在游轮上实施大规模检疫和获得医疗保障存在一些困难。未来,我们需要为病人的转移和让乘客下车时的入院医院做好准备。我们建议以与乘客相同的方式对待机组人员,以控制感染。我们还必须为未来制定一个计划,保护旅客和乘客免受游轮上新发传染病的侵害。



作者列表:["Lim J","Jeon S","Shin HY","Kim MJ","Seong YM","Lee WJ","Choe KW","Kang YM","Lee B","Park SJ"]

METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.

作者列表:["Zhang W","Du RH","Li B","Zheng XS","Yang XL","Hu B","Wang YY","Xiao GF","Yan B","Shi ZL","Zhou P"]

METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
作者列表:["Cheng ZJ","Shan J"]

METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.