- 作者列表："Tiwari R","Dhama K","Sharun K","Iqbal Yatoo M","Malik YS","Singh R","Michalak I","Sah R","Bonilla-Aldana DK","Rodriguez-Morales AJ
:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread over 210 countries and territories beyond China shortly. On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. World over high efforts are being made to counter and contain this virus. The COVID-19 outbreak once again proves the potential of the animal-human interface to act as the primary source of emerging zoonotic diseases. Even though the circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility of an initial zoonotic emergence, it is too early to confirm the role of intermediate hosts such as snakes, pangolins, turtles, and other wild animals in the origin of SARS-CoV-2, in addition to bats, the natural hosts of multiple coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The lessons learned from past episodes of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are being exploited to retort this virus. Best efforts are being taken up by worldwide nations to implement effective diagnosis, strict vigilance, heightened surveillance, and monitoring, along with adopting appropriate preventive and control strategies. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses in brief about the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 with a particular focus on the role of animals, the veterinary and associated zoonotic links along with prevention and control strategies based on One-health approaches.
: 冠状病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)，不久已经遍布中国以外的 210 个国家和地区。2020 年 2 月 29 日，世卫组织将其列为高风险类别，2020 年 3 月 11 日，该病毒被指定为大流行，在 2020 年 1 月 30 日宣布为公共卫生国际紧急情况后。全世界都在努力对抗和遏制这种病毒。新型冠状病毒肺炎的爆发再次证明了动物-人类界面作为新兴人畜共患病的主要来源的潜力。尽管间接证据表明最初人畜共患病出现的可能性，但确认中间宿主如蛇、穿山甲、海龟的作用还为时过早，和其他野生动物的起源传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2，除了蝙蝠，自然宿主多冠状病毒等传染性非典型肺炎CoV冠状病毒 (MERS-CoV).从过去发生的MERS-CoV和传染性非典型肺炎-CoV中吸取的教训正在被用来反驳这种病毒。世界各国正在尽最大努力实施有效诊断、严格警戒、加强监测和监测，同时采取适当的预防和控制战略。确定可能的人畜共患疾病的出现及其最初传播的确切机制将有助于我们设计和实施适当的预防SARS-CoV-2 进一步传播的障碍。本综述简要讨论了新型冠状病毒肺炎/SARS-CoV-2，特别关注动物的作用、兽医和相关人畜共患病的联系以及基于单一健康方法的预防和控制策略。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.