抗冠状病毒病药物再定位综合综述 2019 (COVID19)。
- 作者列表："Rameshrad M","Ghafoori M","Mohammadpour AH","Nayeri MJD","Hosseinzadeh H
:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is the reason for this ongoing pandemic infection diseases termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has emerged since early December 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. In this century, it is the worst threat to international health and the economy. After 4 months of COVID-19 outbreak, there is no certain and approved medicine against it. In this public health emergency, it makes sense to investigate the possible effects of old drugs and find drug repositioning that is efficient, economical, and riskless process. Old drugs that may be effective are from different pharmacological categories, antimalarials, anthelmintics, anti-protozoal, anti-HIVs, anti-influenza, anti-hepacivirus, antineoplastics, neutralizing antibodies, immunoglobulins, and interferons. In vitro, in vivo, or preliminary trials of these drugs in the treatment of COVID-19 have been encouraging, leading to new research projects and trials to find the best drug/s. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms of these drugs against COVID-19. Also, it should be mentioned that in this manuscript, we discuss preliminary rationales; however, clinical trial evidence is needed to prove them. COVID-19 therapy must be based on expert clinical experience and published literature and guidelines from major health organizations. Moreover, herein, we describe current evidence that may be changed in the future.
新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV2) 是自 2019 年 12 月初以来在中国湖北省武汉市出现的被称为冠状病毒病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 的持续大流行传染病的原因。在本世纪，它是对国际健康和经济的最严重威胁。经过 4 个月的新型冠状病毒肺炎爆发，没有确定和批准的药物来对抗它。在这次突发公共卫生事件中，调查旧药物的可能影响并找到高效、经济、无风险的药物重新定位过程是有意义的。可能有效的老药从不同的药理学类别，抗疟药，驱虫药，抗原生动物，抗HIVs，抗流感，抗乙肝病毒，抗肿瘤，中和抗体，免疫球蛋白，和干扰素。在体外、体内或初审s的s e药品s治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎令人鼓舞，导致新s地球工程s和审判s找到be s t药物/s.在这篇综述中，我们讨论这些药物对抗新型冠状病毒肺炎的可能机制。此外，应该提到的是，在这篇手稿中，我们讨论了初步的理由; 然而，需要临床试验证据来证明它们。新型冠状病毒肺炎治疗必须基于专家临床经验和主要卫生组织发表的文献和指南。此外，在此，我们描述了未来可能改变的当前证据。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.