- 作者列表："Peng F","Tu L","Yang Y","Hu P","Wang R","Hu Q","Cao F","Jiang T","Sun J","Xu G","Chang C
:With more than 1,800,000 cases and 110,000 deaths globally, COVID-19 is one of worst infectious disease outbreaks in history. This paper provides a critical review of the available evidence regarding the lessons learned from the Chinese experience with COVID-19 prevention and management. The steps that have led to a near disappearance of new cases in China included rapid sequencing of the virus to establish testing kits, which allowed tracking of infected persons in and out of Wuhan. In addition, aggressive quarantine measures included the complete isolation of Wuhan and then later Hubei Province and the rest of the country, as well as closure of all schools and nonessential businesses. Other measures included the rapid construction of two new hospitals and the establishment of "Fangcang" shelter hospitals. In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions. These measures appeared to provide only moderate success. Although some measures have been supported by weak descriptive data, their effectiveness is still unclear pending well controlled clinical trials. In the end, it was the enforcement of drastic quarantine measures that stopped SARS-CoV-2 from spreading. The earlier the implementation, the less likely resources will be depleted. The most critical factors in stopping a pandemic are early recognition of infected individuals, carriers, and contacts and early implementation of quarantine measures with an organised, proactive, and unified strategy at a national level. Delays result in significantly higher death tolls.
新型冠状病毒肺炎是历史上最严重的传染病之一，全球有超过 1,800,000 例病例和 110,000 人死亡。本文对从中国新型冠状病毒肺炎预防和管理经验中吸取的经验教训的现有证据进行了批判性综述。导致中国新发病例几乎消失的步骤包括对病毒进行快速测序以建立检测试剂盒，从而可以跟踪进出武汉的感染者。此外，积极的检疫措施包括彻底隔离武汉，然后是湖北省和全国其他地区，以及关闭所有学校和非必要的企业。其他措施包括快速建设两家新医院和建立 “方仓” 庇护所医院。在没有疫苗的情况下，新型冠状病毒肺炎的管理包括抗病毒药物、高流量氧气、机械通气、皮质类固醇、羟氯喹、托珠单抗、干扰素、静脉注射免疫球蛋白和恢复期血浆输注。这些措施似乎只提供了适度的成功。尽管一些措施得到了弱描述性数据的支持，但其有效性仍不清楚，有待良好对照的临床试验。最后，正是严厉检疫措施的实施阻止了SARS-CoV-2 的传播。实施越早，资源耗尽的可能性就越小。阻止大流行的最关键因素是早期识别受感染的个人、携带者和接触者，并在国家一级以有组织、积极和统一的战略尽早实施检疫措施。延误导致死亡人数显著增加。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.