- 作者列表："Hossein-Khannazer N","Shokoohian B","Shpichka A","Aghdaei HA","Timashev P","Vosough M
:To date, there is no licensed treatment or approved vaccine to combat the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), and the number of new cases and mortality multiplies every day. Therefore, it is essential to develop an effective treatment strategy to control the virus spread and prevent the disease. Here, we summarized the therapeutic approaches that are used to treat this infection. Although it seems that antiviral drugs are effective in improving clinical manifestation, there is no definite treatment protocol. Lymphocytopenia, excessive inflammation, and cytokine storm followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome are still unsolved issues causing the severity of this disease. Therefore, immune response modulation and inflammation management can be considered as an essential step. There is no doubt that more studies are required to clarify immunopathogenesis and immune response; however, new therapeutic approaches including mesenchymal stromal cell and immune cell therapy showed inspiring results.
: 迄今为止，没有获得许可的治疗或批准的疫苗来对抗 2019 年冠状病毒疾病 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)，每天新病例和死亡率成倍增加。因此，制定有效的治疗策略对控制病毒传播和预防疾病至关重要。在此，我们总结了治疗这种感染的治疗方法。虽然抗病毒药物似乎对改善临床表现有效，但尚无明确的治疗方案。淋巴细胞减少，过度炎症和细胞因子风暴，随后急性呼吸窘迫综合征仍然是导致这种疾病严重程度的问题。因此，免疫反应调节和炎症管理可以被认为是必不可少的步骤。毫无疑问，需要更多的研究来阐明免疫发病机制和免疫反应; 然而，包括间充质基质细胞和免疫细胞治疗在内的新的治疗方法显示了鼓舞人心的结果。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.