Wearable Activity Trackers for Monitoring Adherence to Home Confinement During the COVID-19 Pandemic Worldwide: Data Aggregation and Analysis.
- 作者列表："Pépin JL","Bruno RM","Yang RY","Vercamer V","Jouhaud P","Escourrou P","Boutouyrie P
BACKGROUND:In the context of home confinement during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, objective, real-time data are needed to assess populations' adherence to home confinement to adapt policies and control measures accordingly. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine whether wearable activity trackers could provide information regarding users' adherence to home confinement policies because of their capacity for seamless and continuous monitoring of individuals' natural activity patterns regardless of their location. METHODS:We analyzed big data from individuals using activity trackers (Withings) that count the wearer's average daily number of steps in a number of representative nations that adopted different modalities of restriction of citizens' activities. RESULTS:Data on the number of steps per day from over 740,000 individuals around the world were analyzed. We demonstrate the physical activity patterns in several representative countries with total, partial, or no home confinement. The decrease in steps per day in regions with strict total home confinement ranged from 25% to 54%. Partial lockdown (characterized by social distancing measures such as school closures, bar and restaurant closures, and cancellation of public meetings but without strict home confinement) does not appear to have a significant impact on people's activity compared to the pre-pandemic period. The absolute level of physical activity under total home confinement in European countries is around twofold that in China. In some countries, such as France and Spain, physical activity started to gradually decrease even before official commitment to lockdown as a result of initial less stringent restriction orders or self-quarantine. However, physical activity began to increase again in the last 2 weeks, suggesting a decrease in compliance with confinement orders. CONCLUSIONS:Aggregate analysis of activity tracker data with the potential for daily updates can provide information regarding adherence to home confinement policies.
背景: 在冠状病毒疾病 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 大流行期间家庭监禁的背景下，需要客观、实时的数据来评估人口对家庭监禁的依从性，以相应地调整政策和控制措施。 目标: 这项研究的目的是确定可穿戴活动跟踪器是否能够提供关于用户遵守家庭监禁政策的信息，因为他们能够无缝连续地监控个人的自然活动模式，而不管他们的位置如何。。 方法: 我们分析了使用活动跟踪器 (Withings) 的个体的大数据，这些数据计算了在多个采用不同方式限制公民活动的代表性国家中佩戴者的平均每日步数。 结果: 分析了来自世界各地超过 740,000 人的每日步数数据。我们在几个有代表性的国家展示了完全、部分或无家庭监禁的体力活动模式。家庭禁闭总量严格的地区每天步数的下降幅度从 25% 到 54% 不等。部分封锁 (特征是社会疏远措施，如学校关闭、酒吧和餐馆关闭以及取消公开会议，但没有严格的家庭监禁) 与大流行前相比，似乎对人们的活动没有重大影响。欧洲国家完全家庭监禁下的体力活动绝对水平约为中国的两倍。在一些国家，如法国和西班牙，由于最初不那么严格的限制令或检疫，身体活动甚至在官方承诺封锁之前就开始逐渐减少。然而，体力活动在过去 2 周内又开始增加，这表明遵守分娩命令的情况有所下降。 结论: 具有每日更新潜力的活动跟踪器数据的汇总分析可以提供关于遵守家庭监禁政策的信息。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.