- 作者列表："Carvalho ACC","Kritski A
INTRODUCTION:In March 2020, the rapid increase in COVID-19 cases overburdened the Italian health system, with the country becoming the pandemic's epicenter. METHODS:We present a narrative review based on manuscripts, official documents, and newspaper articles regarding COVID-19 in Italy. RESULTS:Characteristics of the epidemic, possible causes for its worsening, and the measures adopted across Italian regions are presented. CONCLUSIONS:In the early stages of an epidemic, effective decision-making is essential to contain the number of cases. Medical support for patients and social isolation measures are the most appropriate strategies currently available to reduce the spread and lethality of COVID-19.
引言: 2020 年 3 月，新型冠状病毒肺炎病例的迅速增加使意大利卫生系统不堪重负，该国成为大流行的震中。 方法: 我们基于手稿、官方文件和报纸文章对意大利新型冠状病毒肺炎进行了叙述性回顾。 结果: 介绍了疫情的特点、恶化的可能原因以及意大利各地区采取的措施。 结论: 在流行病的早期阶段，有效的决策对于控制病例数量至关重要。对患者的医疗支持和社会隔离措施是目前最合适的策略，以减少新型冠状病毒肺炎的传播和致命性。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.