- 作者列表："Wada T","Itoigawa Y","Yoshida K","Kawasaki T","Maruyama Y","Kaneko K
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the stiffness and morphologic characteristics of the capsule, rotator cuff tendons and muscles, coracohumeral ligament (CHL), and long head of the biceps in patients with frozen shoulder using shear wave elastography (SWE) with B-mode ultrasound. METHODS:Thirty-two patients with frozen shoulder were divided into freezing and frozen phases. All patients had limitations of their range of motion without rotator cuff tears. Stiffness was measured by SWE in the supraspinatus (SSp) tendon, infraspinatus (ISp) tendon, SSp muscle, ISp muscle, teres minor muscle, upper and lower trapezius muscles, posterior capsule, CHL, and long head of the biceps. The posterior capsule and CHL thicknesses were also investigated with B-mode ultrasound. All values were compared in the affected and unaffected shoulders in each phase. RESULTS:The SWE values for the SSp and ISp tendons in the freezing phase and the CHL in the frozen phase were significantly greater on the affected side than the unaffected side (mean ± SD, 280.4 ± 125.3 versus 178.1 ± 73.3, 318.4 ± 110.7 versus 240.8 ± 91.5, and 287.2 ± 135.3 versus 214.1 ± 91.1 kPa, respectively; P < .05). The posterior capsule in both the freezing and frozen phases and the CHL in the frozen phase were significantly thicker on the affected side than the unaffected side (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.9 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.4 versus 0.9 ± 0.3, and 4.4 ± 1.4 versus 3.3 ± 1.1 mm; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS:The SWE values of the both SSp and ISp tendons increased in the freezing phase, and that of the CHL also increased in the frozen phase. Not only the change in thickness of the capsule but also the change in stiffness of the rotator cuff may correlate with frozen shoulder.
目的: 探讨肩袖、肩袖肌腱、喙肱韧带 (CHL) 的刚度和形态特征。使用剪切波弹性成像 (SWE) 和b型超声检查冻结肩患者的肱二头肌长头。 方法: 将 32 例冻结肩患者分为冻结期和冻结期。所有患者的活动范围均有局限性，无肩袖撕裂。通过SWE测量冈上肌 (SSp) 肌腱、冈下肌 (ISp) 肌腱、SSp肌、ISp肌、大圆肌小肌、上下斜方肌、后囊、CHL、还有二头肌的长头。B型超声检查后囊膜厚度和CHL厚度。在每个阶段的受影响和未受影响的肩膀中比较所有值。 结果: 冷冻期SSp和ISp肌腱的SWE值以及冷冻期CHL在患侧明显大于未患侧 (平均值 ± sd，分别为 280.4 ± 125.3 vs 178.1 ± 73.3 、 318.4 ± 110.7 vs 240.8 ± 91.5 和 287.2 ± 135.3 vs 214.1 ± 91.1 kPa; P <.05)。冷冻和冷冻阶段的后囊膜和冷冻阶段的CHL在患侧明显比健侧厚 (1.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.9 ± 0.3)。,1.2 ± 0.4 与 0.9 ± 0.3，4.4 ± 1.4 与 3.3 ± 1.1毫米; P <.01)。 结论: SSp和ISp肌腱的SWE值在冻结期均增加，CHL值在冻结期也增加。不仅胶囊厚度的变化，肩袖刚度的变化也可能与冻结肩相关。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the cardiovascular risk of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between primary SS and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of articles in Medline and the Cochrane Library and recent abstracts from US and European meetings, searching for reports of randomized controlled studies of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in primary SS. The relative risk (RR) values for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with primary SS were collected and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random-effects model by using Review Manager (Cochrane collaboration). RESULTS:The literature search revealed 484 articles and abstracts of interest; 14 studies (67,124 patients with primary SS) were included in the meta-analysis. With primary SS versus control populations, the risk was significantly increased for coronary morbidity (RR 1.34 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.38]; P = 0.01), cerebrovascular morbidity (RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.43-1.49]; P < 0.00001), heart failure rate (odds ratio 2.54 [95% CI 1.30-4.97]; P < 0.007), and thromboembolic morbidity (RR 1.78 [95% CI 1.41-2.25]; P < 0.00001), with no statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.48 [95% CI 0.77-2.85]; P = 0.24). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that primary SS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, which suggests that these patients should be screened for cardiovascular comorbidities and considered for preventive interventions, in a multidisciplinary approach with cardiologists.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the comparative risk of hospitalized infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated abatacept versus a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS:Using claims data from Truven MarketScan database (2006-2015), we identified patients with RA ages ≥18 years with ≥2 RA diagnoses who initiated treatment with abatacept or a TNFi. The primary outcome was a composite end point of any hospitalized infection. Secondary outcomes included bacterial infection, herpes zoster, and infections affecting different organ systems. We performed 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching between the groups in order to control for baseline confounders. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalized infection. RESULTS:We identified 11,248 PS-matched pairs of patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and TNFi with a median age of 56 years (83% were women). The IR per 1,000 person-years for any hospitalized infection was 37 among patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and 47 in those who initiated treatment with TNFi. The HR for the risk of any hospitalized infection associated with abatacept versus TNFi was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) and remained lower when compared to infliximab (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47-0.85]), while no significant difference was seen when compared to adalimumab and etanercept. The risk of secondary outcomes was lower for abatacept for pulmonary infections, and similar to TNFi for the remaining outcomes. CONCLUSION:In this large cohort of patients with RA who initiated treatment with abatacept or TNFi as a first- or second-line biologic agent, we found a lower risk of hospitalized infection after initiating abatacept versus TNFi, which was driven mostly by infliximab.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Reducing pain is one of the main health priorities for children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, some studies indicate that pain is not routinely assessed in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCPs) beliefs about the role of pain and the prioritization of its assessment in children and young people with JIA. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCPs who manage children and young people with JIA in the UK (including consultant and trainee pediatric rheumatologists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). Data were analyzed qualitatively following a framework analysis approach. RESULTS:Twenty-one HCPs participated. Analyses of the data identified 6 themes, including lack of training and low confidence in pain assessment, reluctance to engage in pain discussions, low prioritization of pain assessment, specific beliefs about the nature of pain in JIA, treatment of pain in JIA, and undervaluing pain reports. Assessment of pain symptoms was regarded as a low priority and some HCPs actively avoided conversations about pain. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the assessment of pain in children and young people with JIA may be limited by knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors. HCPs' accounts of their beliefs about pain in JIA and their low prioritization of pain in clinical practice suggest that a shift in perceptions about pain management may be helpful for professionals managing children and young people with this condition.