An oblique fibular tunnel is recommended when reconstructing the ATFL and CFL.
- 作者列表："Michels F","Matricali G","Guillo S","Vanrietvelde F","Pottel H","Stockmans F
PURPOSE:A bone tunnel is often used during the reconstruction of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). The purpose of this study is to compare proposed directions for drilling this fibular tunnel and to assess potential tunnel length, using a 5-mm-diameter tunnel and surrounding bone. METHODS:Anonymous DICOM data from spiral CT-scan images of the ankle were obtained from 12 Caucasian patients: 6 females and 6 males. Virtual tunnels were generated in a 3D bone model with angles of 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° in relation to the fibular long axis. Several measurements were performed: distance from entrance to perforation of opposing cortex, shortening of the tunnel, distance from tunnel centre to bone surface. RESULTS:A tunnel in a perpendicular direction resulted in an average possible tunnel length of 16.8 (± 2.7) mm in the female group and 20.3 (± 3.4) mm in the male group. A tunnel directed at 30° offered the longest length: 30.9 (± 2.5) mm in the female group and 34.4 (± 2.9) mm in the male group. The use of a 5-mm-diameter tunnel in a perpendicular direction caused important shortening of the tunnel at the entrance in some cases. The perpendicular tunnel was very near to the digital fossa while the most obliquely directed tunnels avoided this region. CONCLUSION:An oblique tunnel allows for a longer tunnel and avoids the region of the digital fossa, thereby retaining more surrounding bone. In addition, absolute values of tunnel length are given, which can be useful when considering the use of certain implants. We recommend drilling an oblique fibular tunnel when reconstructing the ATFL and CFL.
目的: 骨隧道常用于距腓前韧带 (ATFL) 和与腓韧带 (CFL) 的重建。本研究的目的是比较钻孔腓骨隧道的建议方向，并评估潜在的隧道长度，使用 5 毫米直径的隧道和周围的骨。 方法: 从 12 例高加索患者中获得踝关节螺旋ct扫描图像的匿名DICOM数据: 6 例女性和 6 例男性。在与腓骨长轴相关的角度为 30 ° 、 45 ° 、 60 ° 和 90 ° 的三维骨模型中生成虚拟隧道。进行了几次测量: 从入口到相对皮质穿孔的距离，隧道的缩短，隧道中心到骨表面的距离。 结果: 垂直方向的隧道导致女性组平均可能的隧道长度为 16.8 (± 2.7) mm，男性组为 20.3 (± 3.4) mm。以 30 ° 为导向的隧道提供最长长度: 女性组为 30.9 (± 2.5) mm，男性组为 34.4 (± 2.9) mm。在垂直方向上使用 5 毫米直径的隧道在某些情况下导致了入口隧道的重要缩短。垂直隧道非常靠近数字窝，而最倾斜的隧道避开了这个区域。 结论: 斜隧道允许更长的隧道，避免了指窝区域，从而保留了更多的周围骨。此外，给出了隧道长度的绝对值，当考虑使用某些植入物时，这可能是有用的。我们建议在重建ATFL和CFL时钻孔腓骨斜隧道。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the cardiovascular risk of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between primary SS and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of articles in Medline and the Cochrane Library and recent abstracts from US and European meetings, searching for reports of randomized controlled studies of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in primary SS. The relative risk (RR) values for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with primary SS were collected and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random-effects model by using Review Manager (Cochrane collaboration). RESULTS:The literature search revealed 484 articles and abstracts of interest; 14 studies (67,124 patients with primary SS) were included in the meta-analysis. With primary SS versus control populations, the risk was significantly increased for coronary morbidity (RR 1.34 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.38]; P = 0.01), cerebrovascular morbidity (RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.43-1.49]; P < 0.00001), heart failure rate (odds ratio 2.54 [95% CI 1.30-4.97]; P < 0.007), and thromboembolic morbidity (RR 1.78 [95% CI 1.41-2.25]; P < 0.00001), with no statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.48 [95% CI 0.77-2.85]; P = 0.24). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that primary SS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, which suggests that these patients should be screened for cardiovascular comorbidities and considered for preventive interventions, in a multidisciplinary approach with cardiologists.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the comparative risk of hospitalized infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated abatacept versus a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS:Using claims data from Truven MarketScan database (2006-2015), we identified patients with RA ages ≥18 years with ≥2 RA diagnoses who initiated treatment with abatacept or a TNFi. The primary outcome was a composite end point of any hospitalized infection. Secondary outcomes included bacterial infection, herpes zoster, and infections affecting different organ systems. We performed 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching between the groups in order to control for baseline confounders. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalized infection. RESULTS:We identified 11,248 PS-matched pairs of patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and TNFi with a median age of 56 years (83% were women). The IR per 1,000 person-years for any hospitalized infection was 37 among patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and 47 in those who initiated treatment with TNFi. The HR for the risk of any hospitalized infection associated with abatacept versus TNFi was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) and remained lower when compared to infliximab (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47-0.85]), while no significant difference was seen when compared to adalimumab and etanercept. The risk of secondary outcomes was lower for abatacept for pulmonary infections, and similar to TNFi for the remaining outcomes. CONCLUSION:In this large cohort of patients with RA who initiated treatment with abatacept or TNFi as a first- or second-line biologic agent, we found a lower risk of hospitalized infection after initiating abatacept versus TNFi, which was driven mostly by infliximab.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Reducing pain is one of the main health priorities for children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, some studies indicate that pain is not routinely assessed in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCPs) beliefs about the role of pain and the prioritization of its assessment in children and young people with JIA. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCPs who manage children and young people with JIA in the UK (including consultant and trainee pediatric rheumatologists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). Data were analyzed qualitatively following a framework analysis approach. RESULTS:Twenty-one HCPs participated. Analyses of the data identified 6 themes, including lack of training and low confidence in pain assessment, reluctance to engage in pain discussions, low prioritization of pain assessment, specific beliefs about the nature of pain in JIA, treatment of pain in JIA, and undervaluing pain reports. Assessment of pain symptoms was regarded as a low priority and some HCPs actively avoided conversations about pain. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the assessment of pain in children and young people with JIA may be limited by knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors. HCPs' accounts of their beliefs about pain in JIA and their low prioritization of pain in clinical practice suggest that a shift in perceptions about pain management may be helpful for professionals managing children and young people with this condition.