Saliva microbiome in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals distinct set of disease-associated microbes.
- 作者列表："Sharma D","Sandhya P","Vellarikkal SK","Surin AK","Jayarajan R","Verma A","Kumar A","Ravi R","Danda D","Sivasubbu S","Scaria V
OBJECTIVE:This study systematically aims to evaluate the salivary microbiome in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) using 16S rRNA sequencing approach. METHODS:DNA isolation and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on saliva of 37 pSS and 35 control (CC) samples on HiSeq 2500 platform. 16S rRNA sequence analysis was performed independently using two popular computational pipelines, QIIME and less operational taxonomic units scripts (LoTuS). RESULTS:There were no significant changes in the alpha diversity between saliva of patients and controls. However, four genera including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Dialister and Leptotrichia were found to be differential between the two sets, and common between both QIIME and LoTuS analysis pipelines (Fold change of 2 and p < .05). Bifidobacterium, Dialister and Lactobacillus were found to be enriched, while Leptotrichia was significantly depleted in pSS compared to the controls. Exploration of microbial diversity measures (Chao1, observed species and Shannon index) revealed a significant increase in the diversity in patients with renal tubular acidosis. An opposite trend was noted, with depletion of diversity in patients with steroids. CONCLUSION:Our analysis suggests that while no significant changes in the diversity of the salivary microbiome could be observed in Sjögren's syndrome compared to the controls, a set of four genera were significantly and consistently differential in the saliva of patients with pSS. Additionally, a difference in alpha diversity in patients with renal tubular acidosis and those on steroids was observed.
目的: 本研究旨在使用 16S rRNA测序方法系统评价原发性干燥综合征 (pSS) 患者的唾液微生物组。 方法: 采用DNA隔离和 16S rRNA测序进行唾液 37 电力系统稳定器 (pSS) 和 35 控制 (CC) 样品HiSeq 2500 平台.16S rRNA序列分析是使用两个流行的计算管道，QIIME和操作较少的分类单元脚本 (LoTuS) 独立进行的。 结果: 患者和对照组唾液 α 多样性无显著变化。然而，双歧杆菌、乳酸杆菌、双叶杆菌和小管菌等 4 个属被发现是两组之间的差异，QIIME和LoTuS分析管道之间的共同 (2 和p <.05 的倍数变化)。发现双歧杆菌、双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌被富集，而pSS与对照组相比，小球杆菌显著耗竭。微生物多样性测量 (Chao1，观察到的物种和Shannon指数) 的探索发现肾小管性酸中毒患者的多样性显著增加。注意到相反的趋势，类固醇患者的多样性耗尽。 结论: 我们的分析表明，虽然与对照组相比，干燥综合征的唾液微生物组的多样性没有显著变化，一组 4 个属在pSS患者唾液中差异显著且一致。此外，观察到肾小管酸中毒患者和接受类固醇治疗的患者的 α 多样性存在差异。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the cardiovascular risk of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between primary SS and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of articles in Medline and the Cochrane Library and recent abstracts from US and European meetings, searching for reports of randomized controlled studies of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in primary SS. The relative risk (RR) values for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with primary SS were collected and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random-effects model by using Review Manager (Cochrane collaboration). RESULTS:The literature search revealed 484 articles and abstracts of interest; 14 studies (67,124 patients with primary SS) were included in the meta-analysis. With primary SS versus control populations, the risk was significantly increased for coronary morbidity (RR 1.34 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.38]; P = 0.01), cerebrovascular morbidity (RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.43-1.49]; P < 0.00001), heart failure rate (odds ratio 2.54 [95% CI 1.30-4.97]; P < 0.007), and thromboembolic morbidity (RR 1.78 [95% CI 1.41-2.25]; P < 0.00001), with no statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.48 [95% CI 0.77-2.85]; P = 0.24). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that primary SS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, which suggests that these patients should be screened for cardiovascular comorbidities and considered for preventive interventions, in a multidisciplinary approach with cardiologists.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the comparative risk of hospitalized infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated abatacept versus a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS:Using claims data from Truven MarketScan database (2006-2015), we identified patients with RA ages ≥18 years with ≥2 RA diagnoses who initiated treatment with abatacept or a TNFi. The primary outcome was a composite end point of any hospitalized infection. Secondary outcomes included bacterial infection, herpes zoster, and infections affecting different organ systems. We performed 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching between the groups in order to control for baseline confounders. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalized infection. RESULTS:We identified 11,248 PS-matched pairs of patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and TNFi with a median age of 56 years (83% were women). The IR per 1,000 person-years for any hospitalized infection was 37 among patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and 47 in those who initiated treatment with TNFi. The HR for the risk of any hospitalized infection associated with abatacept versus TNFi was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) and remained lower when compared to infliximab (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47-0.85]), while no significant difference was seen when compared to adalimumab and etanercept. The risk of secondary outcomes was lower for abatacept for pulmonary infections, and similar to TNFi for the remaining outcomes. CONCLUSION:In this large cohort of patients with RA who initiated treatment with abatacept or TNFi as a first- or second-line biologic agent, we found a lower risk of hospitalized infection after initiating abatacept versus TNFi, which was driven mostly by infliximab.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Reducing pain is one of the main health priorities for children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, some studies indicate that pain is not routinely assessed in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCPs) beliefs about the role of pain and the prioritization of its assessment in children and young people with JIA. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCPs who manage children and young people with JIA in the UK (including consultant and trainee pediatric rheumatologists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). Data were analyzed qualitatively following a framework analysis approach. RESULTS:Twenty-one HCPs participated. Analyses of the data identified 6 themes, including lack of training and low confidence in pain assessment, reluctance to engage in pain discussions, low prioritization of pain assessment, specific beliefs about the nature of pain in JIA, treatment of pain in JIA, and undervaluing pain reports. Assessment of pain symptoms was regarded as a low priority and some HCPs actively avoided conversations about pain. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the assessment of pain in children and young people with JIA may be limited by knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors. HCPs' accounts of their beliefs about pain in JIA and their low prioritization of pain in clinical practice suggest that a shift in perceptions about pain management may be helpful for professionals managing children and young people with this condition.