Isolated displaced type II partial articular radial head fracture: correlation of preoperative imaging with intraoperative findings of lateral ulnar collateral ligament tear.
孤立性移位 ⅱ 型部分关节桡骨头骨折: 术前影像学与外侧尺侧副韧带撕裂术中所见的相关性。
- 作者列表："Tarallo L","Porcellini G","Merolla G","Pellegrini A","Giorgini A","Catani F
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) injury associated with isolated radial head fracture (RHF) and the relationship of the ligament injury with the displacement of the fragment-loss of contact-in unstable displaced partial articular RHF in individuals without any history of ulnohumeral dislocation. METHODS:We retrospectively identified 131 consecutive patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of isolated closed Mason type II RHF performed at our institution. We identified 3 subsets by the pattern of RHF and the position of the unstable fragment (anterior or posterior) relative to the capitulum humeri: displaced stable (group I), displaced anterior unstable (group II), and displaced posterior unstable (group III). Standard radiographs were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively. The pattern of lateral collateral ligament avulsion and its distribution were inferred from intraoperative records. RESULTS:Preoperative radiographs of the 131 patients showed 101 nonseparated fractures (77%, group I) and 30 unstable fractures (23%). Anterior displacement of the fragment was found in 18 elbows (14%, group II) and posterior displacement in 12 (9%, group III). LUCL avulsion was found in 18 of 30 unstable RHFs (60%) and in 1 of 60 stable RHFs (1.6%). CONCLUSION:RHF is a complex fracture often associated with soft tissue lesions. It is important to determine which structures need to be repaired to avoid complications that could lead to elbow instability. The RHF pattern and classification as stable or unstable can help the surgeon in the identification and treatment of LUCL lesions.
背景: 本研究的目的是确定尺骨外侧副韧带 (LUCL) 损伤与孤立性桡骨头骨折 (RHF) 相关。以及在无任何肱骨干脱位史的个体中，不稳定移位部分关节RHF中韧带损伤与碎片移位-失去接触的关系。 方法: 我们回顾性地确定了在我们机构进行的 131 例连续患者，他们接受了孤立的闭合性Mason II型RHF的切开复位和内固定。我们通过RHF的模式和不稳定片段 (前部或后部) 相对于肱骨小头的位置确定了 3 个亚群: 移位稳定 (I组)，移位的前部不稳定 (ⅱ 组) 和移位的后部不稳定 (ⅲ 组)。术前和术后获得标准x光片。从术中记录推断外侧副韧带撕脱的模式及其分布。 结果: 131 例患者术前x线片显示 101 例未分离骨折 (77%，ⅰ 组) 和 30 例不稳定骨折 (23%)。碎片前移位 18 个肘部 (14%，ⅱ 组)，后移位 12 个 (9%，ⅲ 组)。LUCL撕脱发现 1 8 30 不稳定RHFs (60%) 和 1 60 稳定RHFs (1.6%). 结论: RHF是一种复杂的骨折，常合并软组织病变。重要的是确定哪些结构需要修复，以避免可能导致肘关节不稳定的并发症。RHF模式和分类为稳定或不稳定，可以帮助外科医生识别和治疗LUCL病变。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the cardiovascular risk of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between primary SS and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of articles in Medline and the Cochrane Library and recent abstracts from US and European meetings, searching for reports of randomized controlled studies of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in primary SS. The relative risk (RR) values for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with primary SS were collected and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random-effects model by using Review Manager (Cochrane collaboration). RESULTS:The literature search revealed 484 articles and abstracts of interest; 14 studies (67,124 patients with primary SS) were included in the meta-analysis. With primary SS versus control populations, the risk was significantly increased for coronary morbidity (RR 1.34 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.38]; P = 0.01), cerebrovascular morbidity (RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.43-1.49]; P < 0.00001), heart failure rate (odds ratio 2.54 [95% CI 1.30-4.97]; P < 0.007), and thromboembolic morbidity (RR 1.78 [95% CI 1.41-2.25]; P < 0.00001), with no statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.48 [95% CI 0.77-2.85]; P = 0.24). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that primary SS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, which suggests that these patients should be screened for cardiovascular comorbidities and considered for preventive interventions, in a multidisciplinary approach with cardiologists.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the comparative risk of hospitalized infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated abatacept versus a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS:Using claims data from Truven MarketScan database (2006-2015), we identified patients with RA ages ≥18 years with ≥2 RA diagnoses who initiated treatment with abatacept or a TNFi. The primary outcome was a composite end point of any hospitalized infection. Secondary outcomes included bacterial infection, herpes zoster, and infections affecting different organ systems. We performed 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching between the groups in order to control for baseline confounders. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalized infection. RESULTS:We identified 11,248 PS-matched pairs of patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and TNFi with a median age of 56 years (83% were women). The IR per 1,000 person-years for any hospitalized infection was 37 among patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and 47 in those who initiated treatment with TNFi. The HR for the risk of any hospitalized infection associated with abatacept versus TNFi was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) and remained lower when compared to infliximab (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47-0.85]), while no significant difference was seen when compared to adalimumab and etanercept. The risk of secondary outcomes was lower for abatacept for pulmonary infections, and similar to TNFi for the remaining outcomes. CONCLUSION:In this large cohort of patients with RA who initiated treatment with abatacept or TNFi as a first- or second-line biologic agent, we found a lower risk of hospitalized infection after initiating abatacept versus TNFi, which was driven mostly by infliximab.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Reducing pain is one of the main health priorities for children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, some studies indicate that pain is not routinely assessed in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCPs) beliefs about the role of pain and the prioritization of its assessment in children and young people with JIA. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCPs who manage children and young people with JIA in the UK (including consultant and trainee pediatric rheumatologists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). Data were analyzed qualitatively following a framework analysis approach. RESULTS:Twenty-one HCPs participated. Analyses of the data identified 6 themes, including lack of training and low confidence in pain assessment, reluctance to engage in pain discussions, low prioritization of pain assessment, specific beliefs about the nature of pain in JIA, treatment of pain in JIA, and undervaluing pain reports. Assessment of pain symptoms was regarded as a low priority and some HCPs actively avoided conversations about pain. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the assessment of pain in children and young people with JIA may be limited by knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors. HCPs' accounts of their beliefs about pain in JIA and their low prioritization of pain in clinical practice suggest that a shift in perceptions about pain management may be helpful for professionals managing children and young people with this condition.