- 作者列表："Mendes SMDA","Espinosa DDSG","Moreira PEO","Marques D","Fagundes NCF","Ribeiro-Dos-Santos Â
:Orofacial clefts are facial malformations caused by the improper development of the lips and palate. Many genetic and epigenetic molecules have been involved in the mechanisms of orofacial clefts, one of which are miRNAs. This systematic review aimed to identify miRNAs associated to non-syndromic orofacial clefts in humans. After applying a series of criteria, four studies were selected for analysis. In total, one hundred miRNAs were observed in the literature, of which 57 were reported as upregulated and 43 as downregulated in all orofacial cleft classifications. Moreover, nine miRNAs were differentially expressed only in cleft palate patients, which might suggest distinct regulatory mechanisms for the etiology of cleft lips and palates. We suggest broader population sampling in order to include diverse ethnic groups in the future, as well as analyses toward identifying miRNA target genes and pathways. We highlight the need for experimental validation and of these results to allow further translational approaches and clinical applications.
: 口面部裂隙是由于口唇和腭部发育不当引起的面部畸形。许多遗传和表观遗传分子参与了口面部裂隙的机制，其中之一是miRNAs。本系统综述旨在鉴定与人类非综合征性口面部裂隙相关的miRNAs。应用一系列标准后，选择 4 项研究进行分析。总共在文献中观察到 100 个miRNAs，其中 57 个在所有口面裂分类中报告为上调，43 个为下调。此外，9 种miRNAs仅在腭裂患者中差异表达，这可能提示了唇腭裂病因的不同调控机制。我们建议更广泛的人群抽样，以便将来包括不同的种族群体，以及用于鉴定miRNA靶基因和通路的分析。我们强调需要实验验证和这些结果，以允许进一步的转化方法和临床应用。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.