Automatic hypernasality grade assessment in cleft palate speech based on the spectral envelope method.
- 作者列表："Zhang J","Yang S","Wang X","Tang M","Yin H","He L
:Due to velopharyngeal incompetence, airflow overflows from the oral cavity to the nasal cavity, which results in hypernasality. Hypernasality greatly reduces speech intelligibility and affects the daily communication of patients with cleft palate. Accurate assessment of hypernasality grades can provide assisted diagnosis for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in clinical settings. Utilizing a support vector machine (SVM), this paper classifies speech recordings into four grades (normal, mild, moderate and severe hypernasality) based on vocal tract characteristics. Linear prediction (LP) analysis is widely used to model the vocal tract. Glottal source information may be included in the LP-based spectrum. The stabilized weighted linear prediction (SWLP) method, which imposes the temporal weights on the closed-phase interval of the glottal cycle, is a more robust approach for modeling the vocal tract. The extended weighted linear prediction (XLP) method weights each lagged speech signal separately, which achieves a finer time scale on the spectral envelope than the SWLP method. Tested speech recordings were collected from 60 subjects with cleft palate and 20 control subjects, and included a total of 4640 Mandarin syllables. The experimental results showed that the spectral envelope of normal speech decreases faster than that of hypernasal speech in the high-frequency part. The experimental results also indicate that the SWLP- and XLP-based methods have smaller correlation coefficients between normal and hypernasal speech than the LP method. Thus, the SWLP and XLP methods have better ability to distinguish hypernasal from normal speech than the LP method. The classification accuracies of the four hypernasality grades using the SWLP and XLP methods range from 83.86% to 97.47%. The selection of the model order and the size of the weight function are also discussed in this paper.
: 由于腭咽闭合不全，气流从口腔溢出到鼻腔，导致鼻过度。鼻过度大大降低了语音清晰度，影响了腭裂患者的日常交流。准确评估多鼻症分级可为临床环境中的言语-语言病理学家 (SLPs) 提供辅助诊断。利用支持向量机 (SVM)，根据声道特征，将语音记录分为四个等级 (正常、轻度、中度和重度高鼻音)。线性预测 (LP) 分析被广泛用于声带的建模。Glottal来源信息可能包含在基于LP的光谱中。稳定加权线性预测 (SWLP) 方法，对声门周期的闭合相位间隔施加时间权重，是一种更稳健的声带建模方法。扩展加权线性预测 (XLP) 方法分别对每个滞后语音信号进行加权，比SWLP方法在谱包络上实现了更精细的时间尺度。从 60 例腭裂受试者和 20 例对照受试者中收集测试的语音记录，共包括 4640 个普通话音节。实验结果表明，在高频部分，正常语音的频谱包络比高鼻语音的频谱包络降低更快。实验结果还表明，基于SWLP和XLP的方法与LP方法相比，正常和超鼻语音之间的相关系数较小。因此，SWLP和XLP方法比LP方法具有更好的区分鼻高音和正常语音的能力。使用SWLP和XLP方法的四种鼻部分级的分类精度范围为 83.86% 至 97.47%。本文还讨论了模型阶数的选择和权函数的大小。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.