- 作者列表："Wong ZH","Hewitt R","Cross K","Butler C","Yeh YT","Ramaswamy M","Blackburn S","Giuliani S","Muthialu N","De Coppi P
AIM:Symptomatic tracheobronchomalacia can be fatal. Successful treatment includes aortopexy. We report outcomes of the thoracoscopic approach in a single centre. METHODS:All patients undergoing thoracoscopic aortopexies from 2009 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Data was reported as median (interquartile range). Risk factors for subsequent tracheostomy were analyzed with logistics regression model, p < 0.05 as significant. RESULTS:Twenty-one patients with mid to distal tracheomalacia (n = 17) and bronchial involvement (n = 4) were determined on bronchoscopy, tracheobronchogram, or CT thorax. Preoperative patient demographics and comorbidities, e.g., gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, prematurity, and cardiac anomalies were recorded. Indications for thoracoscopic aortopexy were apparent life-threatening event(s) (n = 14), recurrent chest infections (n = 5), and failure to wean invasive ventilation (n = 2). Thoracoscopic aortopexies (n = 20) with conversion to open (n = 1) were performed. Intraoperative bleeding (n = 2) occurred, and chest tube (n = 1) was inserted for monitoring. Intraoperative bronchoscopy (n = 17) confirmed improvement of tracheomalacia. Anesthetic time was 140 (90-160) minutes. Postoperatively, 2 patients had dehiscence of the aorta from the sternum. They underwent redo open aortopexy with posterior tracheopexy, and 1 required subsequent tracheostomy. Another 2 patients required tracheostomies. Potential risk factors for subsequent tracheostomy were investigated, and only the association of tracheobronchomalacia was close to significance (OR 16 (95% CI 0.95-267.03), p = 0.05). Follow up duration was 365 (72-854) days. Symptoms resolution occurred in n = 17 (81%) of patients. CONCLUSION:Different modalities were used to delineate the site of tracheobronchomalacia and its etiology. Tracheomalacia with bronchial involvement may be a risk factor for subsequent tracheostomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level 3 (Case Series).
目的: 有症状的气管支气管软化可能是致命的。成功的治疗包括主动脉固定。我们报告了单中心胸腔镜入路的结局。 方法: 回顾性分析 2009 年至 2018 年所有接受胸腔镜下主动脉瘤切除术的患者。数据报告为中位数 (四分位数间距)。采用logistics回归模型分析后续气管切开的危险因素，p <0.05 为显著性。 结果: 21 例中-远端气管软化 (n = 17) 和支气管受累 (n = 4) 患者经支气管镜、气管支气管造影或胸部CT检查确定。记录术前患者人口统计学和合并症，如胃食管反流病、早产和心脏异常。指示s的胸s copic aortopexy明显危及生命的事件 (s) (n = 14)，复发、胆碱酯酶 (che) s t感染s (n = 5)，未断奶inva s我通气 (n = 2).行胸腔镜下主动脉瘤切除术 (n = 20)，中转开放 (n = 1)。术中出血 (n = 2)，置入胸管 (n = 1) 监测。术中支气管镜检查 (n = 17) 证实气管软化改善。麻醉时间为 140 (90-160) 分钟。术后 2 例患者主动脉从胸骨裂开。他们接受了后气管固定的重做开放主动脉固定术，1 例需要随后的气管切开术。另有 2 例患者需要气管切开。研究了后续气管切开的潜在危险因素，只有气管支气管软化的相关性接近显著性 (OR 16 (95% CI 0.95-267.03)，p = 0.05)。随访时间为 365 (72-854) 天。N = 17 例 (81%) 患者症状缓解。 结论: 采用不同的方法对气管支气管软化的部位和病因进行了研究。累及支气管的气管软化可能是后续气管切开的危险因素。 证据级别: 3 级 (病例系列)。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.